Define Anarchy – Condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy, originally meant leaderlessness. The Geek word anarchy “No ruler, leader, authority.”
Definitions of anarchy can be very diverse:
#1 Absence of government and a state of lawlessness with no authority
#2 A utopian society of individuals who enjoy complete freedom without government
1781 AD-1798 AD: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), a German philosopher, argued that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from an ability to make objective judgments, the human senses let humans perceive space and time, and the world exists separate from what man thinks it is. Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. He believed that this will be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. Kant likely was an early exponent of atheism.
1781 AD: Kant’s the Critique of Pure Reason attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and wanted to end to the impasse between rationalists and empiricists by integrating these two into his thought. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experiences. One important consequence of this view is that our experience of things is always of the phenomenal world as conveyed by our senses: we do not have direct access to things in themselves, the so-called nominal world. Thee real world we only perceive through our limited senses.
1781 AD-1797 AD: Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, wrote a Pragmatic Point of View as consisting of “Law and Freedom without Force”. So anarchy is not a true civil state because the law is only an “empty recommendation” if force is not included to make this law efficacious. Kant defined a republic as a state, with force included, while law and freedom are maintained.
1790s AD: Kant identified four kinds of government:
#1 Anarchy = Law & freedom without force – Stateless and based on non-hierarchical free associations.
#2 Despotism = Law and force without freedom
#3 Barbarism = Force without freedom and law
#4 Republic = Force with freedom and law
Anarchism = Holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful and entails opposing authority or hierarchical organizations in the conduct of all human relations = anti-statist
Anarchist schools of thought = Extreme individualism to complete Collectivism or communism. The central tendency of anarchism is toward anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism is primarily a marketing ploy.
Some anarchists oppose all forms of aggression, supporting self-defense or non-violence. Others have supported the use of militant measures, including revolution and propaganda, on the path to an anarchist society.
1840 AD: Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in “What Is Property?” He advocates for stateless societies based on voluntary associations and the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government and institutions. He visualizes nations that have no system of government or central rule.
1890s AD-1950s AD: Term libertarianism has been used as a synonym for anarchism and was used almost exclusively in this sense until the 1950s in the United States. At this time, classical liberals in the United States began to describe themselves as libertarians, and it has since become necessary to distinguish their individualist and capitalist philosophy right-wing from liberal socialist anarchism.
Right-libertarians are divided into minarchists and anarcho-capitalists or voluntarists. Outside the English-speaking world, libertarianism generally retains its association with left-wing anarchism.