1949 Mao Tsu-tung and Joseph Stalin in Moscow

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Mao Zedong “Mao” = (1893-1976) and in Office 1945 – 1976 = Known as Chairman Mao, Communist Dictator using Marxist–Leninist theories = Marxism-Leninism-Maoism governing.

MAO = Twentieth Century leader with 40 million to 70 million killed or murdered.

MAO = Son of a wealthy farmer and became a founding member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927 and founded the RED ARMY.

MOA = 1957 launched the Great Leap Forward campaign that aimed to rapidly transform China’s economy from an agrarian economy to an industrial one. = Contributed to a widespread famine and death of up to 45 MILLION.

MOA = 1966 initiated 10 year Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution = Removing “counter-revolutionary” marked by violent class.

MAO = 1972 welcomed Nixon in Beijing opening China to west.

MAO = Increasing life expectancy and China’s population almost doubled to 900 million.

MOA = Nearly Destroyed traditional Chinese culture + Systematically violated human rights killing 40 to 70 million with starvation, prison labour and executions = Comparable to Jewish run USSR with 66 MILLION MASS MURDERED!

MAO = Lived as a child under and abusive father who beat children and mother was a devout Buddhist who tried to temper her husband’s strict attitude and MOA became a Buddhist, but abandoned this faith in his mid-teenage years and was taught value systems of Confucianism. His father forced him to marry to gain control of more land and he refused to recognize her as his wife, becoming a fierce critic of arranged marriage and temporarily moving away and the girl was disgraced and died very young.

MOA = Read voraciously and developed a “political consciousness” on the deterioration of Chinese power and argued for the adoption of representative democracy and was inspired by the military prowess and nationalistic fervor of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte. He hated the Chinese monarchy.

MOA = Was bullied in high school. He called for Independent Republic in a school essay and supporting the revolution but was not involved in fighting until the monarchy was abolished, creating the Republic of China, but the monarchist Yuan would become president.

MOA = Discovered socialism and studies independently, having found school stifling, and read works of classical liberalism = Adam Smith + Darwin + Mill + Rousseau + Spencer and viewed himself as an intellectual and at this time he thought himself better than working people.

MOA = Was inspired by Friedrich Paulsen’s liberal individualism not bound by moral codes should strive for the greater good, and that the “end justifies the means.” + His father saw no use in his son’s intellectual pursuits and cut off his allowance, and forced him to move into a hostel for the destitute.

MAO = Professor urged him to read a radical newspaper that argued that China must look to the west to cleanse out superstition. He published his first article in New Youth in 1917, instructing readers to increase their physical strength to serve the revolution. In 1915 he was elected secretary of the Students Society and organized the Association for Student Self-Government and led protests against school rules.

MAO = 1917 Increasingly interested in the techniques of war, he took a keen interest in World War I, and also began to develop a sense of solidarity with workers.

MAO = 1918 formed with other students the Renovation of the People Study Society desiring personal and societal transformation, most of the 80 members later join the Communist Party.

MAO = 1919 moved to Beijing, where his mentor had taken a job at Peking University and who thought Mao was exceptionally “intelligent and handsome”. He became an assistant to the university librarian who was an early Chinese Communist supporting the Jewish Communist Revolution in Russia under Lenin who seized power advocating the socio-political theory of Marxism by the Jew Karl Marx.

MAO = Became a “more and more radical” Communist. He was widely snubbed by other students due to his rural Hunanese accent and lowly position.

MAO = Was anti-Japan who were taking territory in China and became involved in the nation-wide May Fourth Movement that fueled the New Culture Movement which blamed China’s diplomatic defeats on social and cultural backwardness.

MAO = 1919 begun teaching history at the Xiuye Primary School and organizing protests against corrupt and violent rule and began a weekly radical magazine aimed at average Chinese populace. He found that his articles had achieved a level of fame among the revolutionary movement, and set about soliciting support and reading ever more newly translated Marxist and Communist literature including The Communist Manifesto.

MOA = In Shanghai worked as a laundryman and met an old revolutionary teacher and member of the Chinese Nationalist Party, which was gaining increasing support and influence and he met General Tan Yankai who was plotting an overthrow and he aided him by organizing the Changsha students.

MOA = 1920 Tan’s troops caused Zhang to flee and Tan pointed Mao headmaster of the junior section of the First Normal School with a large income and he married.

MAO = 1921-22 Helped Found the Communist Party of China founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in the French concession of Shanghai, and he set up a branch including a bookstore to propagate the revolution. And small Marxist groups existed in Shanghai, Beijing, Changsha, Wuhan, Guangzhou, and Jinan so a central meeting was arranged in Shanghai = The first session of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China with 13 delegates including Mao. They ignored Lenin’s advice and stuck to the orthodox Marxist belief that only the urban proletariat could lead a socialist revolution.

MAO = 1921 Became party secretary and the party followed a variety of tactics to expand access to Radical revolutionary literature. He mobilized the miners + local intellectuals + gentry + military officers + merchants + Red Gang dragon heads + even church clergy.

MAO 1922 missed Second Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai because he claimed he lost the address. He used Lenin’s advice and organized “bourgeois democrats” with the Communist Party members and argued for an alliance across China’s socio-economic classes. He vocally advocated anti-imperialist in his writings and lambasted the governments of Japan, UK and US, describing the latter as “the most murderous of hangmen.”

MAO = 1923 At the Third Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai, the delegates reaffirmed their commitment to working with the KMT, the Democrat Socialists, and Mao was elected to the Party Committee, taking up residence in Shanghai.

MAO = 1924 At the First KMT Congress, he was elected an alternate member of the KMT Central Executive Committee, and put forward four resolutions to decentralize power to urban and rural bureaus. He found in the rural areas the peasantry were increasingly restless and some had seized land from wealthy landowners to found communes and he was convinced of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry, an idea advocated by the left.

MAO = 1926 Ran the Peasant Movement Training Institute for six months to train cadre and prepared them for militant activity, taking them through military training exercises and getting them to study basic left-wing texts. Plus he supported Chiang’s National Revolutionary Army, who embarked on the Northern Expedition attack on warlords. After that peasants rose up, appropriating the land of the wealthy landowners, who were in many cases killed = Growing class and ideological divide within the revolutionary movement.

MAO = 1927 wrote = “Revolution is not a dinner party, nor an essay, nor a painting, nor a piece of embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.” + He urged peasants to refuse to pay rent and called for the confiscation of land belonging to “local bullies and bad gentry, corrupt officials, militarists and all counter-revolutionary elements in the villages”.

MAO = 1927 Chiang’s success over the Northern Expedition against the warlords caused Chiang to then turned on the Communists numbering in the tens of thousands across China. Chiang marched on Shanghai, controlled by Communist militias and massacred 5000 and 19 leading Communists were killed and then tens of thousands of Communists and those suspected of being communists were killed, and the COMMY PARTY lost approximately 15,000 of its 25,000 members.

MAO = 1928 Immediately dropped his support for Democrats and Chaing and at the Communist Fifth Congress he supported only the peasant militia and founded the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army of China, better known as the “Red Army”, to battle Chiang. A battalion led by General Zhu De was ordered to take the city of Nanchang, but were forced into retreat after five days, marching south to Shantou, and from there they were driven into the wilderness of Fujian.

MAO = 1927 was appointed commander-in-chief of the Red Army and led four regiments against Changsha in the Autumn Harvest Uprising, in the hope of sparking peasant uprisings across Hunan. His army made it to Changsha, but could not take it and accepted defeat and took 1000 survivors to east to the Mountains. = Sabotaged by Mao and USSR diplomats = The retreat was “the most despicable treachery and cowardice.”

Base in Jinggangshan: 1927–1928

MAO 1927 Communists Central Committee expelled Mao from their ranks as punishment for his “military opportunism” and for being too lenient with “bad gentry”. But they adopted three of MAO’s policies = Formation of Workers’ councils + Confiscation of all land without exemption + Rejection of the Democrats.

MAO = 1927 on his established base in Jinggangshan City, an area of the Jinggang Mountains, he united five villages and supported the confiscation of land from rich landlords, who were “re-educated” and sometimes executed, but did no massacres. He boosted the army’s numbers to a force of around 1,800 troops.

MAO = 1928 Central Committee ordered Mao’s troops to southern Hunan, hoping to spark peasant uprisings. Mao was skeptical, but complied and suffered heavy losses plus they lost their base in Jinggangshan so they wandered the countryside and came across ca communist regiment and united to retake Jinggangshan, but after initial success were BEATEN BACK by democrats and fought entrenched guerrilla wars in the mountains. After much effort they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base but were unable to grow enough crops to feed everyone, leading to food shortages throughout the winter.

MAO = 1929 evacuated the base with 2,800 men and moved south but rural troops robbed and deserted and Mao was told to disband his army into units to be sent out to spread the revolutionary message. Mao refused seeing the Chinese revolution as the key to world revolution and the overthrow of global imperialism and capitalism. = UNLIKE THEIR JEWISH RUSSIAN USSR COMMY FRIENDS who desired greater control over the Chinese Commy Party.

JEWISH COMMIES = Replaced a Chinese Commy leaders with a Soviet-educated Chinese Communists, known as the “28 Bolsheviks” who took control of the Central Committee.

MAO = 1930 Disagreed with USSR Jews and emerged as their key rival creating the Southwest Jiangxi Provincial Soviet Government in the region under his control, but suffered emotional trauma after his wife and sister were captured and beheaded by Democrats. He married an 18-year-old revolutionary who bore him five children over the following nine years. He was accused him of being too moderate and tried to overthrow Mao, resulting in 2000 to 3000 Mao’s loyalists being tortured and many executed. Chinese Commy Central Committee moved to Jiangxi which it saw as a secure area, and proclaimed the Jiangxi the Soviet Republic of China and Mao’s power was diminished over the Red Army as Mao recovered from tuberculosis.

MAO = 1930 The Democrat armies adopted a policy of encirclement and annihilation of the Red armies. Outnumbered, Mao responded with guerrilla tactics. Other factions of the Red Army successfully caught off the first and second encirclements and were angered at MOA’s armies’ failure. Fortunately for MAO the democrat army retreated to deal with Japanese EXPANSIONISM into China and the Red Army was able to expand its area of control, eventually encompassing a population of 3 million.

MAO = 1931 proceeded to rob land from rich reform program and announced the start of a “land verification project” which was expanded in June 1933. + He orchestrated education programs and implemented measures to increase female political participation. But then Chiang Democrat viewed the Communists as a greater threat than the Japanese and returned to Jiangxi, where he initiated the fifth encirclement campaign, which involved the construction of a concrete and barbed wire “wall of fire” around the state, which was accompanied by aerial bombardment and Red Army’s food and medicine became scarce. The leadership decided to evacuate.

MAO = 1934 the Red Army broke through the Democrats line with 85,000 soldiers and 15,000 party cadres and embarked on the “Long March” to escape, with many wounded + ill + women + children left behind and massacred by Democrats.

MAO = 1935 with the 100,000 who escaped fighting their way across rivers and heavy losses temporarily rested in a city and held a conference where Mao was elected to as Chairman of the Politburo and de facto leader of both Party and Red Army = Supported by Jewish USSR & Stalin to focus the Communists on fighting the Japanese to show COMMIES were anti-imperialist and gain trust of the Chinese people vs Democrats.

MAO = 1935 After incredible fighting and starvation with only 7-8000 surviving the Long March but this cemented Mao’s status as the dominant figure in the party and was named chairman of the Military Commission and from this point onward, Mao was the Communist Party’s undisputed leader, even though he would not become party chairman until 1943.

MAO = 1935 To save his position in the party he caused the needless deaths of thousands of his own troops by circling back. MAO was carried on a litter to “have much time to read” as the litter bearers’ knees were worn to the bone being forced to carry Mao up mountains. The LONG MARCH was mostly made up to enhance his record.

MAO = 1935-36 settled in Pao An developing links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment, and began literacy programs with a command of 15,000 soldiers. + Established the North West Anti-Japanese Red Army University to train increasing numbers of new recruits.

MAO = 1937 began the “anti-Japanese expedition”, that sent groups of guerrilla fighters into Japanese-controlled territory to undertake sporadic attacks.

MAO = 1937 Communist Conference and BRITISH MSM accounts brought international attention to Mao’s cause. = BRITISH-ISRAEL COMMIES AGGRAVATING DIVIDE & CONQUER using media.

MAO = 1937 His wife was injured by shrapnel and was sent to Moscow for medical treatment. Jews every step of the way. So Mao divorced her and marry an actress and moved into a cave-house and spent much of his time reading, tending his garden and theorizing.

MAO = 1937 came to believe that the Red Army alone was unable to defeat the Japanese so he again called for joining the Democrats to defeat the Japanese as Stalin & Rothschids called for. After some COVERT ACTIONS against Chiang he agreed to discuss the issue with the Communists = Resulted in formation of a United Front with concessions on both sides.

MAO = 1938 saw the Japanese’s brutality lead to increasing numbers of Chinese joining the fight, and the Red Army grew from 50,000 to 500,000 and by 1940 the Red Army initiated the Hundred Regiments Campaign, in which 400,000 troops attacked the Japanese simultaneously in five provinces. It was a military success with death of 20,000 Japanese who lost railways and coal mines.

MAO = 1940 Authored several texts for his troops, including Philosophy of Revolution, which offered an introduction to the Marxist theory of knowledge, Protracted Warfare, which dealt with guerilla and mobile military tactics, and New Democracy, which laid forward ideas for China’s future.

1944 Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy, called the Dixie Mission, to the Communist Party of China. And most Americans were favorably impressed. AND AMERICANS supported the commies who they said were less corrupt, more unified, and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan. After the end of World War II, the U.S. continued their military assistance to Chiang Kai-shek against MAO + USSR gave covert support to Mao in northeast China.

MAO = 1948 Army starved out the Kuomintang forces occupying the city of Changchun and 160,000+ civilians were murdered during five month siege = Compared it to Hiroshima: “The casualties were about the same. Hiroshima took nine seconds; Changchun took five months.”

MAO = 1949, COMMY ARMY laid siege to Chongqing and Chengdu on mainland China, and Chiang Kai-shek fled from the mainland to Formosa (Taiwan). + The People’s Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949 as the culmination of over two decades of civil and international wars. Mao’s famous phrase “The Chinese people have stood up”

MAO = 1950 took up residence in Zhongnanhai, a compound next to the Forbidden City in Beijing, and ordered the construction of an indoor swimming pool and other buildings. He sent the People’s Volunteer Army (PVA), a special unit of the People’s Liberation Army, into the war in Korea to fight and reinforce the armed forces of North Korea which had been in full retreat.

MAO 1950s Did land reform and significant numbers of landlords and well-to-do peasants were beaten to death at mass meetings organized by the Communist Party as land was taken from them and given to poorer peasants. + Suppression of Counter-revolutionaries, involved public executions including Businessmen + Former employees of Western companies + Intellectuals not loyal to MAO. = 1.8 MILLION MURDERED! But MAO said 700,000 from 1950-52.

MAO = 1950s 2 million to 5 million murders + 1.5 to 6 million sent to “labor” camps and perished. He defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power.

MAO = 1951 initiated successive movements to WEED OUT Corruption & Target wealthy capitalists & Political opponents + Purge of government, industry and party officials as workers denounced their bosses + Women turned in their spouses + Children informed on their parents = MAO said “while the worst among them should be shot”. = SUICIDES by jumping from tall buildings became commonplace and residents avoided walking on the pavement near skyscrapers. = Driving enemies to suicide was a common MAO tactic and “this pattern was repeated throughout his leadership of the People’s Republic.”

MAO = 1953-58 First Five-Year Plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power with Jewish USSR assistance in building new industrial plants and eventually produced enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR’s support.

MAO = 1958 instigated the Second Five-Year Plan towards rapid collectivization with price controls + increasing literacy + Large-scale industrialization projects. Mao’s government persecuted 500,000 who criticized the party — to root out “dangerous” thinking. = The condemnation, silencing, and death of many citizens, was linked to Mao’s enforcement resulting in deaths possibly in the millions. 5-year plan was called the Great Leap Forward with Soviet model focusing on heavy industry. + The small farmers were forced into ever larger agricultural collectives that rapidly merged into far larger people’s communes, and many of the peasants (BACK TO SLAVERY) were ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on the production of iron and steel. Farmers lost their livestock and farm implements = Brought under collective ownership. = 15% drop in grain production in 1959 followed by a further 10% decline in 1960 and no recovery in 1961. Rural peasants were left with little food for themselves and 30 millions starved to death in the largest famine known as the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1962) + Many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962. Upon learning of the extent of the starvation, Mao vowed to stop eating meat, an action followed by his staff.

FACT: MAO may have wanted to starve Million to death. = At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March 25, 1959, Mao specifically ordered the party to procure up to one-third of all the grain, much more than had ever been the case. = “It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill.” = Mao was ready to accept mass death on an immense scale and Mao did not in fact accept mass death. = MOA policies resulted in exhausting labor without food and rest + Epidemics + Starvation + Mass deaths. = Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres.

FACT: The Great Leap Forward was a vast human tragedy. = 15 to 30 million excess deaths in China (1958–61) with The official statistic of 20 million deaths. But some with access say death toll was 36 million to 45 million premature deaths attributable to the Great Leap Forward (1958-1962)

MAO = ISOLATION from the international front as The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev’s withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid to China as China threatened his leadership of world Communism as China setup its own network of Communist parties. = Helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War that influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular.

MAO = “believed that the (nuke) bomb was a ‘paper tiger'” and he cared nothing about a possible loss of 300 million Chinese people in a nuclear war.

MAO = HATED Khrushchev because he though he should be leader of COMMIES! And now China was confronted with a new Soviet threat from the north and west, and the two leaders were in hostile confrontation with each other.

MAO = Early 1960s wanted those in power to be frightened of the masses and force them to be to serve the people– even if it took continuous revolutions. = Mao believed in a “perpetual revolution” culture to serve the interests of the majority, rather than a tiny and privileged elite. The party started downsizing MAO’s role to a ceremonial and symbolic role. Mao responded with the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966.

MAO = Certain liberal bourgeois young elements of society threaten MAO’s socialist framework = Young people known as the Red Guards struggled and even set up their own tribunals. Chaos reigned in much of the nation, and millions were persecuted and during the Cultural Revolution, nearly all of the schools and universities in China were closed. And young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside to be “re-educated” by the peasants to performed hard manual labor and other work. + Imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens. = Social chaos as Millions of lives were ruined. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution.

MAO = 1960s commented: “People who try to commit suicide — don’t attempt to save them! . . . China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people.” = The Red Guards were allowed to abuse and kill opponents of the regime. National police chief: “Don’t say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it.” = Aug to Sept 1966 1,772 people were murdered by the Red Guards in Beijing alone.

MAO = 1971 chose Lin Biao, echo of all of Mao’s ideas, to become his successor. But by 1971 a divide between the two men became apparent when Kin was caught planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on Mao. Then Lin Biao died in a plane crash over Mongolia as he fled China anticipating his arrest.

MAO = 1973 supposedly said to Kissinger that “China is a very poor country. We don’t have much. What we have in excess is women… Let them go to your place. They will create disasters. That way you can lessen our burdens.” He offered 10 million women to America.

MAO = 1976 China mark the end of the Cultural Revolution following Mao’s death and the arrest of the Gang of Four. Mao faced with declining health with Parkinson’s disease, lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouble.

MAO = 1967 During the Cultural Revolution, China detonated its first H-Bomb (1967) + Launched the Dong Fang Hong satellite (1970) + Commissioned its first nuclear submarines + Made advances in science and technology + Healthcare was free + Living standards in countryside improved. + MAO’s personality harden to an increasingly ruthless and self-indulgent dictator and his acceptance of criticism decreased continuously.

MAO = Left China on only two occasions, both to Jewish USSR!

MAO = Last public appearance May 27, 1976 to meet the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Bhutto.

FACT: China’s rapid growth only after Mao’s policies had been widely abandoned.

MAO = In mainland China is still revered by many members and supporters of the Communist Party and is respected as the “Founding Father of modern China” and credited with giving “the Chinese people dignity and self-respect.” + Raised average life expectancy from 35 in 1949 to 63 by 1975

MAO = In west is generally associated with tyranny and his economic theories are widely discredited as would be expected.

MAO = Murdered 46,000 intellectuals.

MAO = “was a great leader in history” and was also “a great criminal because, not that he wanted to, not that he intended to, but in fact, his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people.” + “Mao’s way of thinking and governing was terrifying. He put no value on human life. The deaths of others meant nothing to him.”

MAO = Said to his inner circle in 1958: “Working like this, with all these projects, half of China may well have to die. If not half, one-third, or one-tenth—50 million—die.” Or did he say “half of China’s population unquestionably will die; and if it’s not half, it’ll be a third or ten percent, a death toll of 50 million people.”

MAO = Continues to benefit from a more favourable comparison with Cambodia or the Soviet Union. But as fresh and abundant archival evidence shows, coercion, terror and systematic violence were the foundation of the Great Leap, and between 1958 to 1962, with 6% to 8% of those who died tortured to death or summarily killed = 3 million victims.

MAO & Communist leaders = “glorified violence and were inured to massive loss of life. And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means.”

MAO = Large-scale irrigation projects human cost = claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of exhausted villagers. = In Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, villagers in Qingshui and Gansu called these projects the ‘killing fields’.”

MAO = TV Biography stated: “[Mao] turned China from a feudal backwater into one of the most powerful countries in the World … The Chinese system he overthrew was backward and corrupt; few would argue the fact that he dragged China into the 20th century. But at a cost in human lives that is staggering.”

FACT: China has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao’s death with a betrayal of Maoism to view capitalist production and instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s.

2006 Government in Shanghai issued a new set of high school history textbooks which omit Mao.

MAO = 1955 response to the Khrushchev Report that criticised Joseph Stalin, Mao stated that personality cults are “poisonous ideological survivals of the old society.”

MOA = Had ten children and twelve grandchildren, many of whom he never knew. One of his granddaughters is businesswoman and one of the richest people in China and mother to three of Mao’s great-grandchildren.

MAO = Private life = chain-smoking cigarettes, rare bathing or dental habits, laziness, addiction to sleeping pills and large number of sexual partners. = Disputed by friends. He was proud of his “peasant ways and manners” and his “earthiness” meant that he remained connected to “everyday Chinese life.” He showed ruthlessness but showed no sign of taking pleasure in torture or killing in the revolutionary cause. But he was “draconian and authoritarian” when threatened, but was not the “kind of villain that his mentor Stalin was”.

MAO = Was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature and his work gave rise to a new form of Chinese calligraphy called “Mao-style.”

MAO = Had his Chinese negotiator lay the cards straight on the table, “It is up to you to choose whether Tibet would be liberated peacefully or by force. It is only a matter of sending a telegram to the PLA group to recommence their march to Lhasa.” Ngabo accepted Mao’s “Seventeen-Point Agreement”, which constituted Tibet as part of the People’s Republic China, in return for which Tibet would be granted autonomy. In the face of discouraging lack of support from the rest of the world, the Dalai Lama on August 1951, sent a telegram to Mao accepting the Seventeen-Point Agreement. However the delegates signing the agreement were forced to do so and the Tibetan’s Government’s seal used was forged.

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