TIMELINE OF TALMUDS! YES THERE ARE TWO PRIMARY AND MANY OTHERS!

TIMELINE OF TALMUDS! YES THERE ARE TWO PRIMARY AND MANY OTHERS!

TALMUD = RABBIS 30 VOLUME FULL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM!  WHAT?  YOU WANT I SHOULD WORK FOR A LIVING?

 TALMUD – THE RABBIS FULL EMPLOYMENT PROPAGANDA AND LIES PROGRAM!

1,313 BCE: (BIBLE ONLY) Moses teaches the Torah to the 70 elders followed by Mystical teachings passed down from the very earliest generations, even prior to receiving from Moses and the burning bush. The Oral Torah was passed down 1,380 years into what is now the Written Torah (done supposedly in 70 CE but more likely around 600 CE). According to Jewish tradition, the Oral Torah was passed down orally from generation to generation until its contents were finally committed to writing following the destruction of the Second Temple in around 200 CE. In 1523 CE the first complete printed edition of the Babylonian Talmud was distributed to mostly rabbis (took 2,000+ years to record in text).

605 BCE-562 BCE: BABYLON — Nebuchadnezzar II ruled in Babylon. He undertook some monumental building projects that included the Hanging Gardens. The New Babylonian Revival used glazed bricks for building thereby creating a colorful city. The king was fond of spinach. 604 BCE-562 BCE: BABYLON — Nebuchadnezzar II ruled in Babylon. He undertook some monumental building projects that included the Hanging Gardens. The New Babylonian Revival used glazed bricks for building thereby creating a colorful city. The king was fond of spinach.604 BCE: BABYLON — Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon invaded a put the Philistines’ cities to the sword. There is no remnant of them after that.

597 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — first deportation to Babylon

586 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jerusalem falls to Nebuchadnezzar and Solomon’s Temple destroyed

586 BCE: BABYLON DESTROYS JERUSALEM — Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, ruler of Mesopotamia, destroyed Jerusalem and recorded his deeds at the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River) cliff face between Beirut and Byblos. He destroyed the first Temple, built by Solomon and took the Jewish people into captivity.

586 BCE: BABYLONIAN DOMINATION — Ezekial, in exile at Babylon, described Tyre as it was before Nebuchadnezzar’s attack in the Bible: (Ezekial 27:1-25). This time is known as the “Babylonian Captivity.”

585 BCE-572 BCE: BABYLONIAN DOMINATION — Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon began his 13 year siege of Tyre.

539 BCE: BABYLON — Babylon, under Chaldean rule since 612 BCE, fell to the Persians. Cyrus the Persian captured Babylon after the New Babylonian leader, Belshazaar, failed to read “the handwriting on the wall.” The Persian Empire under Cyrus lasted to 331 BCE, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus returned some of the exiled Jews to Palestine, while other Jews preferred to stay and establish a 2nd Jewish center, the first being in Jerusalem. The Cyrus Cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was discovered in 1878 CE and became considered as the world’s first declaration of human rights.

539 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem, by permission of Cyrus. A Model of the Second Temple defined

520 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Prophecy of Zechariah

516 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Second Temple consecrated

475 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Often associated with Xerxes I of Persia, Queen Esther revealed her identity to the king and began to plead for her people, pointing to Haman as the evil schemer plotting to destroy them.

460 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Seeing anarchy breaking out in Judea, Xerxes’ successor Persian King Artaxerxes sent Ezra to restore order.

401 BCE: BABYLON — In the Battle of Cunaxa Cyrus, king of Persia, attempted to oust his brother Artaxerxes from rule over Babylon. Greek forces, hired to help Cyrus, were left stranded when Cyrus died. The Greek army elected Xenophon to lead them back home. Xenophon later authored his “Anabasis” (expedition up country), which told the story of return home.

350 BCE: BABYLON — Babylonian tables of astronomical numbers regularly use zero.

332 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Alexander the Great conquers Phoenicia and Gaza, probably passing by Judea without entering the Jewish dominated hill country on his way into Egypt.

323 BCE: BABYLON — Alexander died In Persia at Babylon at the age of 32. His general, Ptolemy, took possession of Egypt. Apelles was a painter in Alexander’s court. He had been commissioned by Alexander to paint a portrait of Campaspe, Alexander’s concubine. Apelles fell in love with Campaspe and Alexander granted her to him in marriage.

250 BCE-625 CE: Talmud Timeline — Chazal or Ḥazal refers to Jewish sages (rabbis) from the Second Temple to 625 CE. Rabbi Writing Talmud Eras:

200 BCE-100 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — At some point during this era the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) is canonized. Jewish religious works that were explicitly written after the time of Ezra were not canonized, although many became popular among many groups of Jews. Those works that made it into the Greek translation of the Bible (the Septuagint) became known as the deuterocanonical books.

167 BCE-161 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Maccabees (Hasmoneans) revolt against the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, led by Judah Maccabee, resulting in victory and installation of the Hanukkah holiday.

157 BCE-129 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Hasmonean dynasty establishes its royal dominance in Judea during renewed war with the Seleucid Empire.

63 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Pompey the Great lay siege to and entered the Temple, Judea became a client kingdom of Rome.

40 BCE-4 BCE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Herod the Great, appointed King of the Jews by the Roman Senate.

6 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Province of Roman Judaea created by merging Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea.

10 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Hillel the Elder, considered the greatest Torah sage, dies, leading to the dominance of Shammai till 30, see also Hillel and Shammai.

26–36 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Trial and crucifixion of Jesus by the Romans.

30 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Helena of Adiabene, a vassal Parthian kingdom in Mesopotamia, converts to Judaism. Significant numbers of Adiabene population follow her, later also providing limited support for Jews during Jewish-Roman wars. In the following centuries the community mostly converts to Christianity.

30 CE-70 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Schism within Judaism during the Second Temple era. A sect within Hellenised Jewish society starts Jewish Christianity, see also Rejection of Jesus.

66 CE-70 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The First Jewish–Roman War ended with destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Jerusalem. 1,100,000 people are killed by the Romans during the siege, and 97,000 captured and enslaved. The Sanhedrin was relocated to Yavne by Yochanan ben Zakai, see also Council of Jamnia. Fiscus Judaicus levied on all Jews of the Roman Empire whether they aided the revolt or not.

70 CE-200 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Period of the Tannaim, rabbis who organized and elucidated the Oral Torah. The decisions of the Tannaim are contained in the Mishnah, Beraita, Tosefta, and various Midrash compilations.

70 CE-200 CE: ORAL & HIGHLY VARIABLE TALMUD — With Roman destruction of the Second Temple there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained. It is during this period that rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing and by 200 CE The Mishnah Rabbi written HATE SPEECH and Talmudic LAWS (Instructions) were compiled in a written compendium of rabbis’ Judaism’s Oral Torah with Rabbi Judah given credit.

70-200 CE: Zugot – Original scholarship was oral & highly variable without the benefit of writing #1 200 CE: Tannaim – First rabbi written document, #2 500 CE: Amoraim, #3 625 CE: Savoraim, #4 1050 CE: Geonim, #5 1500 CE: Rishonim, #6 To TODAY: Acharonim as rabbis are still pumping out new LAWS & hate speech.

73 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Final events of the First Jewish–Roman War – the fall of Masada. Christianity starts off as a Jewish sect and then develops its own texts and ideology and branches off from Judaism to become a distinct religion.

115 CE-117 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Kitos War (Revolt against Trajan) – a second Jewish-Roman War initiated in large Jewish communities of Cyprus, Cyrene (modern Libya), Aegipta (modern Egypt) and Mesopotamia (modern Syria and Iraq). It led to mutual killing of hundreds of thousands Jews, Greeks and Romans, ending with a total defeat of Jewish rebels and complete extermination of Jews in Cyprus and Cyrene by the newly installed Emperor Hadrian.

131 CE-136 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Roman emperor Hadrian, among other provocations, renames Jerusalem “Aelia Capitolina” and prohibits circumcision. Simon bar Kokhba (Bar Kosiba) leads a large Jewish revolt against Rome in response to Hadrian’s actions. In the aftermath, most Jewish population is annihilated (about 580,000 killed) and Hadrian renames the province of Judea to Syria Palaestina, and attempts to root out Judaism.

136 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Akiva is martyred.

138 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — With Emperor Hadrian’s death, the persecution of Jews within the Roman Empire is eased and Jews are allowed to visit Jerusalem on Tisha B’av. In the following centuries the Jewish center moves to Galilee.

200 CE-500 CE: TALMUD — Babylonian Talmud was mostly produced around 200 CE-500 CE in reaction to the New Testament and is 63 essays (517 chapters) making up the central text of Rabbinic HATE SPEECH compiled during the post-biblical periods in the Talmudic academies following the Babylonian Rabbis HATE SPEECH. Jewish sources used the term “Babylonia” long after its geopolitical obsolescence. Written by Rabbis in Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains laws about sex with children 3 to 9 years old and orders to cheat & Kill NON-ASHKENAZIS who the RABBIS consider NON-HUMAN and lower than a dog. The Rabbis mostly produced these hate-filled tombs around 200 CE-500 CE in reaction to the New Testament as Christianity became popular! By far the best known commentary on the Babylonian Talmud is that of Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, 1040 CE-1105 CE), but rabbis still add to the 30 volumes of laws and hateful writings often quoted by rabbis today that call for killing NON-ASHKENAZIS.

200 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Mishnah, the standardization of the Jewish oral law as it stands today, is redacted by Judah haNasi in the land of Israel. The Mishnah Rabbi written HATE SPEECH Talmud LAWS (Instructions) = Written compendium of Rabbi Scum written Judaism’s Oral Torah. The Mishnah is a compilation of legal opinions & debates and are brief & terse. Laws are sequenced by subject matter instead of by biblical context as rabbis drift farther from the Old Testament books. It pretends to be far better than the Old Testament. Talmudic statements cover two categories: #1 Jewish laws and practice #2 Interpretation of the Books of the Old Testament, how to preach & teach, and covers Talmudic ethics. The excuse for the poor quality of the early Talmuds is they were so persecuted they could not write anything better.

220 CE-500 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Period of the Amoraim, the rabbis of the Talmud.

259 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Nehardea in Babylonia destroyed by the Palmyrenes, which destruction caused the widespread dispersion of Jews in the region.

274 CE: The prophet Mani (216 CE-274 CE), a resident of Babylon, died. His writings led to Manichaeism, one of the major Iranian Gnostic religions, originating in Sassanid Persia. Although most of his original writings have been lost, numerous translations and fragmentary texts have survived. Manichaeism is distinguished by its elaborate cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness.

315 CE-337 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Roman Emperor Constantine I enacts new restrictive legislation. Conversion of Christians to Judaism is outlawed, congregations for religious services are curtailed, but Jews are also allowed to enter Jerusalem on the anniversary of the Temple’s destruction.

325 CE: TALMUD — By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325 CE, Constantine the Great (272 CE-337 CE), the first Christian emperor, said “let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd.” Constantine the Great ruled from 306 CE to 337 CE.

351 CE-352 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus is put down.

358 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Because of the increasing danger of Roman persecution, Hillel II creates a mathematical calendar for calculating the Jewish month. After adopting the calendar, the Sanhedrin in Tiberias is dissolved.

361 CE-363 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The last pagan Roman Emperor, Julian, allows the Jews to return to “holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt” and to rebuild the Second Temple. Shortly after, the Emperor is assassinated, and the plan is dissolved.

363 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Galilee earthquake of 363

379 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — In India, the Hindu king Sira Primal, also known as Iru Brahman, issued what was engraved on a tablet of brass, his permission to Jews to live freely, build synagogue, own property without conditions attached and as long as the world and moon exist.

425 CE: TALMUD — Theodosius II, The Eastern Roman Emperor (408 CE-450 CE) ordered work on the Jerusalem Talmud be limited. Theodosius II is well-known for starting the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople.

431 CE: Christian Schisms — Nestorianism by Nestorius (386 CE-450 CE) emphasized a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus and said Mary was not to play a central role in the church so he was in conflict with other church leaders and his teachings were eventually condemned as heretical causing the Nestorian Schism. Nestorius’s supporters relocated to the Sasanian Empire, where they affiliated with the local Christian community, known as the Church of the East. A similar schism involved Eutychianism and the Oriental Orthodoxy.

438 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Empress Eudocia removes the ban on Jews’ praying at the Temple site and the heads of the Community in Galilee issue a call “to the great and mighty people of the Jews”: “Know that the end of the exile of our people has come”!

450 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Redaction of the Jerusalem Talmud

450 CE-550 CE: TALMUD SAID TO HAVE BEEN WRITTEN DOWN AND EDITED — Rabbinic tradition holds that the people cited in both Babylonian and Jewish Talmuds did not have a hand in its writings; rather, their teachings were edited into a rough form around 450 CE (Talmud Yerushalmi) and 550 CE (Talmud Bavli.) The text of the Bavli especially was not firmly fixed at that time. The first fully written manuscript of the Talmud is known as the Munich Talmud published around 1343 CE, called the Munich Talmud.

450 CE-550 CE: TALMUD — The Talmud is Rabbi written LAWS — Rabbinic tradition holds that the people cited in both Talmuds did not have a hand in its writings; rather, their teachings were edited into a rough form around 450 CE (Yerushalmi) and 550 CE (Bavli). Talmud is sometimes called Shas or shisha sedarim meaning “six orders.” – All refer to post-biblical periods during which the Talmud was being compiled. Neither the Jerusalem nor the Babylonian Talmud covers the entire Talmud and are very different. The editing of the Babylonian Talmud was superior to that of the Jerusalem version and again the excuse is persecution. Later rabbis accepted the Babylonian Talmud as binding but often ignored the inferior Jewish Talmud when they disagreed.

500 CE: Babylonian TALMUD — Babylonian Talmud compiled 60 miles south of Baghdad (Iraq) then called Mesopotamia and includes parts of the 200 CE Mishnah and resulted in the 500 CE Gemara. Tradition ascribes the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud in its present form to two Babylonian rabbis Rav Ashi (375 CE-427 CE) & Ravina II (died 475 CE) who finished the document.

500 CE: TALMUD — The Gemara Rabbi written HATE SPEECH building on the Mishnah (200 CE) LAWS and related ORAL HATE SPEECH the Rabbis wrote down. Filled with rabbis LEGAL theories and you can see why they dominate the legal system as that is their only focus. Two separate works of the Talmud were created in two separate locations in 200 CE and in 500 CE. The excuse for the poor quality of the early Talmuds is they were so persecuted they could not write anything better.

500 CE-523 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Yosef Dhu Nuwas, King of Himyarite Kingdom (Modern Yemen) converting to Judaism, upgrading existing Yemenese Jewish center. His kingdom falls in a war against Axum and the Christians.

500 CE: TALMUD HISTORY — The second component of the Talmud, the Gemara, was compiled about this time in Babylon (later Iraq). It is a discussion of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Tanakh. The first component, the Mishnah, the first written compendium of Judaism’s Oral Law, dated to around 200 CE.

610 CE-628 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews of Galilee led by Benjamin of Tiberias gain autonomy in Jerusalem after revolting against Heraclius as a joint military campaign with ally Sassanid Empire under Khosrau II and Jewish militias from Persia, but are subsequently massacred.

600s CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The rise and domination of Islam among largely pagan Arabs in the Arabian peninsula results in the almost complete removal and conversion of the ancient Jewish communities there, and sack of Levant from the hands of Byzantines.

700 CE-1250 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Period of the Gaonim (the Gaonic era). Jews in southern Europe and Asia Minor lived under the often intolerant rule of Christian kings and clerics. Most Jews lived in the Muslim Arab realm (Andalusia, North Africa, Palestine, Iraq and Yemen). Despite sporadic periods of persecution, Jewish communal and cultural life flowered in this period. The universally recognized centers of Jewish life were in Jerusalem and Tiberias (Syria), Sura and Pumbeditha (Iraq). The heads of these law schools were the Gaonim, who were consulted on matters of law by Jews throughout the world. During this time, the Niqqud is invented in Tiberias.

711 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Muslim armies invade and occupy most of Spain (At this time Jews made up about 8% of Spain’s population). Under Christian rule, Jews had been subject to frequent and intense persecution, which was formalized under Muslim rule due to the dhimmi rules in Islam. Jews and Christians had to pay the jizya. Some sources mark this as the beginning of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, though most mention 912 CE.

740 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Khazar (a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia) King and members of the upper class adopt Judaism. The Khazarate lasts until 10th century, being overrun by Russians, and finally conquered by Russian and Byzantian forces in 1016.

760 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Karaites reject the authority of the oral law, and split off from rabbinic Judaism.

776 CE: Al-Jahiz (776 CE-868 CE), Muslim theologian and scholar, was born in Basra about this time. He is credited with writing nearly two hundred works, although fewer than one hundred survive today. His most famous work is Al-Hayawan” (The Book of animals), which merges discussions of zoology with philosophy.

807 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Abbassid Caliph Harun al-Rashid orders all Jews in the Caliphate to wear a yellow belt, with Christians to wear a blue one.

846 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — In Sura, Iraq, Rav Amram Gaon compiles his siddur (Jewish prayer-book.)

850 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — al-Mutawakkil made a decree ordering dhimmi Jews and Christians to wear garments distinguishing them from Muslims, their places of worship to be destroyed, and allowing them little involvement in government or official matters.

871 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — An incomplete marriage contract dated to October 6 of this year is the earliest dated document found in the papers of the Cairo Geniza.

912 CE-1013 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Abd-ar-Rahman III becomes Caliph of Spain in 912 CE, ushering in the height of tolerance. Muslims granted Jews and Christians exemptions from military service, the right to their own courts of law, and a guarantee of safety of their property. Jewish poets, scholars, scientists, statesmen and philosophers flourished in and were an integral part of the extensive Arab civilization. This period ended with the Cordoba massacre in 1013 CE.

940 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — In Iraq, Saadia Gaon compiles his siddur (Jewish prayer book).

1008 CE-1013 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (“the Mad”) issues severe restrictions against Jews in the Fatimid Empire. All Jews are forced to wear a heavy wooden “golden calf” around their necks. Christians had to wear a large wooden cross and members of both groups had to wear black hats.

1013 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — During the fall of the city, Sulayman’s troops looted Córdoba and massacred citizens of the city, including many Jews. Prominent Jews in Córdoba, such as Samuel ibn Naghrela were forced to flee to the city in 1013 CE.

1013 CE-1073 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi (from Morocco, later Spain) writes the Rif, an important work of Jewish law.

1016 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Jewish community of Kairouan, Tunisia is forced to choose between conversion and expulsion.

1033 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Following their conquest of the city from the Maghrawa tribe, the forces of Tamim, chief of the Zenata Berber Banu Ifran tribe, perpetrated a massacre of Jews in Fez.

1040 CE-1105 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki (Rashi) writes important commentaries on almost the entire Tanakh and Talmud.

1066 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Granada massacre: Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city. “More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day.” – Must put in context with all other major exaggerations during history.

1090 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Granada was captured by Yusuf ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravides. The Jewish community, believed to have sided with the Christians, was destroyed. Many fled, penniless, to Christian Toledo.

1095 CE-1291 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Christian Crusades begin, sparking warfare with Islam in Palestine. Crusaders temporarily capture Jerusalem in 1099. Tens of thousands of Jews are killed by European crusaders throughout Europe and in the Middle East.
12th century

1100 CE-1275 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Time of the tosafot, Talmudic commentators who carried on Rashi’s work. They include some of his descendants.

1100s CE: TALMUD — Best known Rabbi commenting on the Babylonian Talmud was French rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (1040 CE-1105 CE) and is a rambling coverage of almost the entire Talmud.

1107 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yusuf ibn Tashfin expels Moroccan Jews who do not convert to Islam.

1135 CE-1204 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Moses ben Maimon, aka Maimonides or the Rambam is the leading rabbi of Sephardic Jewry. Among his many accomplishments, he writes an influential code of law (The Mishneh Torah) as well as, in Arabic, the most influential philosophical work (Guide for the Perplexed) in Jewish history.

1141 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Yehuda Halevi issues a call to the Jews to emigrate to Palestine. He is buried in Jerusalem.

1148 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Berbers oblige Jews to convert in Cordoba. Maimonides leaves Cordoba

1187 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Upon the capture of Jerusalem, Saladin summons the Jews and permits them to resettle in the city. In particular, the residents of Ashkelon, a large Jewish settlement, respond to his request.

1190 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — 150 Jews of York, England, killed in a pogrom, known as the York Massacre. – Must put in context with all other major exaggerations during history.

1230s CE-1242 CE: TALMUD — Full-scale attacks on the Talmud took place as Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, pressed 35 charges against the Talmud to Pope Gregory IX by translating a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus, Mary or Christianity. There is a quoted Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. The Talmud also permits Jews to kill non-Jews. This led to the Disputation of Paris, which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX of France, where four rabbis. The Disputation of Paris led to the condemnation and the first burning of copies of the Talmud in Paris in 1242.

1230 CE: TALMUD — Medieval Ashkenazis produced another major RABBI REPORT known as Tosafot to explain contradictory statements in the Talmud and contradicts Solomon ben Isaac.

1235 CE-1863 CE: TALMUD — Tosafot rabbi commentary on Talmud by Rabbeinu Tam and his pupil and relative Isaac ben Samuel ha-Zaḳen (RI) of Dampierre and Isaac was succeeded by his pupil Samson ben Abraham of Sens about 1235 as they enriched the literature and compiled them into the group known as the Tosafot of Sens and were published at Warsaw (1863). The tosafistic period extended through more than two centuries. When the French brought about the destruction of the Talmud, the writing of tosafot in France soon ceased but survived. This Tosafot contains the line, “If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explanation. Who ever will violate this order shall be put to death.” It also appears in a Halachic Midrash called the “Mechilta.” The Children of Israel were at war and this is describing a wartime policy of not sparing with the enemy or you may fall into their hands. The Tosafot commentary refers only to times of war.

1250 CE-1300 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The life of Moses de Leon, of Spain. He publishes to the public the Zohar the 2nd century CE esoteric interpretations of the Torah by Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai and his disciples. This begins the modern form of Kabbalah (esoteric Jewish mysticism).

1250 CE-1550 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Period of the Rishonim, the medieval rabbinic sages. Most Jews at this time lived in lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea or in Western Europe under feudal systems. With the decline of Muslim and Jewish centers of power in Iraq, there was no single place in the world which was a recognized authority for deciding matters of Jewish law and practice. Consequently, the rabbis recognized the need for writing commentaries on the Torah and Talmud and for writing law codes that would allow Jews anywhere in the world to be able to continue living in the Jewish tradition.

1260s CE-1790s CE: POLISH HISTORY — The Statute of Kalisz in Poland gave the Jews of Poland rights granted nowhere else in Europe. They were even granted their own autonomous legal system, known as the kahal, which allowed them to adjudicate intra-Jewish disputes without recourse to the Polish Christian legal system. This autonomy, in turn, necessitated the intensive study of the Talmud, which, according Graetz, led to the peculiar corruption of Polish Jews. The reliance on the Talmud as the basis of Jewish legal autonomy created a culture of “hair-splitting judgment” among the rabbis, according Graetz, as well as “a love of twisting, distorting, and ingenious quibbling…,” which found expression in vulgar behavior. They “found pleasure and a sort of triumphant delight in deception and cheating,” says Graetz. By the end of the 1700s CE, the overwhelming majority of Jews lived in Poland which gained the reputation of being “a nation of deceivers,” wrote Immanuel Kant, the quintessential Enlightenment Jewish philosopher, “It does indeed seem strange to conceive of a nation of deceivers, but it is also very strange to conceive of a nation of merchants, the majority of whom, bound by an ancient superstition accepted by the state they live in, do not seek any civil dignity, but prefer to make good this disadvantage with the benefits of trickery at the expense of the people who shelter them…” — Kant, Werke Bd. vii, p. 205-6. — Poland became known throughout Europe as the “paradisus Judeorum,” the paradise of the Jews. When persecutions would flare up in the traditionally Jewish sections of Europe, in the German principalities, particularly in the urban centers of the Rhein valley, as they frequently did throughout the middle ages, the Jews who wished to escape persecution inevitably headed east toward Poland, taking their language, Yiddish with them. When Isaac Bashevis Singer won the Nobel Prize in 1978 CE, he was designated a Pole by the selection committee, and yet in spite of that fact had to admit in a moment of candor that he understood Polish only with difficulty, even though he lived his entire youth in Poland. Jews did not assimilate in Poland; most of them did not learn the language of the Christian Poles, because, other than rudimentary commerce and illicit sexual activity, the Jews had virtually no contact with the Poles even though they had lived in their country for centuries. The Jews established their own state within a state there; they established their own legal system and courts there as well, and, if demographic evidence is conclusive in matters like this, the Polish paradise was the most successful modus Vivendi Jews ever found in the West.

1263 CE-1264 CE: TALMUD — The Talmud was the subject of the Disputation of Barcelona as Pablo Christiani made an attack on the Talmud that resulted in a papal bull against the Talmud and in the first censorship, which was undertaken at Barcelona by a commission of Dominicans, who ordered the cancellation of passages deemed objectionable in 1264.

1267 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Nahmanides (Ramban) settles in Jerusalem and builds the Ramban Synagogue.

1270 CE-1343 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Jacob ben Asher of Spain writes the Arba’ah Turim (Four Rows of Jewish Law).

1276 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Massacre in Fez to kill all Jews stopped by intervention of the Emir.

1290 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews are expelled from England by Edward I after the banning of usury in the 1275 CE Statute of Jewry.

1300 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Pottery in the museum of the synagogue of Sopron, Hungary, built around 1300 CE.

1300 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Levi ben Gershom, aka Gersonides. A 14th-century French Jewish philosopher best known for his Sefer Milhamot Adonai (“The Book of the Wars of the Lord”) as well as for his philosophical commentaries.

1306 CE-1394 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews are repeatedly expelled from France and readmitted, for a price.

1322 CE: JEWISH TALMUD BURNING — Jewish Talmud and related Books were Burned in Rome by order of Pope John XXII., and accompanied by robbery and murder of the Jews by the mob.

1342 CE: TALMUD — The oldest known full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud was criticized for containing anti-Christian or anti-Gentile content, absurd or sexually immoral content, and falsification of Old Testament scriptures.

1343 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews persecuted in Western Europe are invited to Poland by Casimir the Great.

1346 CE-1353 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews scapegoated as the cause of the growing Black Death. See also Medieval antisemitism

1348 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Pope Clement VI issued two papal bulls in 1348 CE (6 July and 26 September), the latter named Quamvis Perfidiam, which condemned the violence and said those who blamed the plague on the Jews had been “seduced by that liar, the Devil.” He urged clergy to take action to protect Jews as he had done.

1349 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Strasbourg massacre

1350s CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Genetic testing conducted on Ashkenazi Jews have pointed to a bottleneck that was created in the 1300s amongst the Jewish population where it dwindled down to as few as 250–420 people.

1413 CE-1415 CE: TALMUD — The Disputation of Tortosa as Geronimo de Santa Fé brought forward a number of accusations, including the fateful assertion that the condemnations of “heathens” and “apostates” found in the Talmud were references to Christians saying to kill them. In 1415, Antipope Benedict XIII, who had convened the Tortosa disputation, issued a papal bull forbidding the Jews to read the Talmud, and ordering the destruction of all copies of it.

1478 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain institute the Spanish Inquisition.

1486 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First Jewish prayer book published in Italy.

1488–1575 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Yosef Karo spends 20 years compiling the Beit Yosef, an enormous guide to Jewish law. He then writes a more concise guide, the Shulkhan Arukh, that becomes the standard law guide for the next 400 years. Born in Spain, Yosef Karo lives and dies in Safed.

1488 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Obadiah ben Abraham, commentator on the Mishnah, arrives in Jerusalem and marks a new epoch for the Jewish community.

1492 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Alhambra Decree: Approximately 200,000 Jews are expelled from Spain, The expelled Jews relocate to the Netherlands, Turkey, Arab lands, and Judea; some eventually go to South and Central America. However, most emigrate to Poland. In later centuries, more than 50% of Jewish world population lived in Poland. Many Jews remain in Spain after publicly converting to Christianity, becoming Crypto-Jews.

1492 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire issued a formal invitation to the Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal and sent out ships to safely bring Jews to his empire.

1493 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews expelled from Sicily. An amazing 137,000 jews exiled.

1496 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews expelled from Portugal and from many German cities.

1500s CE-1600s CE: TALMUD — Ashkenazis founded pilpul, a method of studying the Talmud through intense textual analysis using intellectually dishonest hairsplitting by Jacob Pollak (1460 CE–1541 CE) and Shalom Shachna and reached its height in 1500s CE-1600s CE in Poland and Lithuania. By the 1700s, pilpul study waned.

1501 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — King Alexander of Poland readmits Jews to Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

1516 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Ghetto of Venice established, the first Jewish ghetto in Europe. Many others follow.

1520s CE: TALMUD — Solomon ben Isaac (1040 CE-1105 CE) commentary has been included in every edition of the Talmud since its first printing by Daniel Bomberg in the 1520s.

1520 CE-1523 CE: TALMUD — Bomberg Talmud was first printed in Venice by Daniel Bomberg (1520 CE–1523 CE) with the support of Pope Leo X (1513 CE-1521 CE), who was a Medici Pope & a sexual pervert known to take advantage of handsome boys under his control. So we know a CATHOLIC POPE ADVOCATED FOR THE TALMUD and this is simply AMAZING for the time, but then we know Emperor Leo IV was a Khazar-Ashkenazi and all the Medici Popes were also Khazar-Ashkenazis. In addition to the Mishnah and Gemara, Bomberg’s edition contained the commentaries of Rashi and “Tosafot.” Bomberg’s edition was considered relatively free of censorship.

1520 CE-1523 CE: TALMUD — Charges were made by the convert Johannes Pfefferkorn, a Dominican with the emperor and the pope acting as judges became in the eyes of some a precursor of the Reformation. An unexpected result of this affair was the complete printed edition of the Babylonian Talmud issued in 1520 CE-1523 CE by Daniel Bomberg at Venice, under the protection of a papal Khazar Leo X, a known sexual pervert.

1525 CE-1572 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Moshe Isserles (The Rema) of Kraków writes an extensive gloss to the Shulkhan Arukh called the Mappah, extending its application to Ashkenazi Jewry.

1534 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — King Sigismund I of Poland abolishes the law that required Jews to wear special clothes.

1534 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First Yiddish book published, in Poland.

1534 CE-1572 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Isaac Luria (“the Arizal”) teaches Kabbalah in Jerusalem and (mainly) Safed to select disciples. Some of those, such as Ibn Tebul, Israel Sarug and mostly Chaim Vital, put his teachings into writing. While the Sarugian versions are published shortly afterwards in Italy and Holland, the Vitalian texts remain in manuscripti for as long as three centuries.

1547 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First Hebrew Jewish printing-house in Lublin.

1550 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews expelled from Genoa, Italy.

1550 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Moses ben Jacob Cordovero founds a Kabbalah academy in Safed.

1550s CE: JEW CONVERTS TO ROMAN CATHOLIC AND BECAME A LEADER AND AUTHOR — Sixtus of Siena or Sixtus Senensis (1520 CE–1569 CE) was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism, and became a Roman Catholic theologian. Though he was convicted of heresy he was saved by a Dominican inquisitor, the future Pope Pius V, who repealed the condemnation when Sixtus recanted and pledged to transfer to the Dominican Order instead. He is considered one of the two most outstanding Dominican scholars of his generation. He had as a master Lancelotto Politi, some of whose writings he later publicly criticized.

1553 CE: JEWISH TALMUD BURNING — Rome: Pope Julius III ordered jewish book burnings by the same order took place in Barcelona, Venice, Romagna, Urbino and Pesaro. Three wagons full of books were burned; but first they were carried through the streets of the city, while royal officers proclaimed publicly that their condemnation was due to the insults to Christianity which they contained.

1553 CE-1565 CE: TALMUD — After thirty years of the Khazar Medici Leo X run Vatican first permitting the Talmud to appear in print, undertook a campaign of destruction against it and on the New Year, Rosh Hashanah (September 9, 1553) the copies of the Talmud were confiscated in compliance with a decree of the Inquisition and were burned at Rome, in Campo dei Fiori. Other burnings took place in other Italian cities, such as the one instigated by Joshua dei Cantori at Cremona in 1559. Censorship of the Talmud and other Hebrew works was introduced by a papal bull issued in 1554; five years later the Talmud was included in the first Index Expurgatorius; and Pope Pius IV commanded, in 1565, that the Talmud be deprived of its very name. The convention of referring to the work as “Shas” (shishah sidre Mishnah) instead of “Talmud” dates from this time. This resulted in Ashkenazis editing of the Talmud to remove the reclusive portions and a first edition of the expurgated Talmud, on which most subsequent editions were based, appeared at Basel (1578–1581) with the omission of the entire treatise of ‘Abodah Zarah and of passages considered inimical to Christianity, together with modifications of certain phrases.

1554 CE: JEWISH TALMUD BURNING — Burned by the hundreds and thousands in Ancona, Ferrara, Mantua, Padua, Candia and Ravenna.

1557 CE: JEWISH TALMUD BURNING — Poland: Talmud burned because of the charge made against the Jews that they used the blood of Christian children in their ceremonies. This occurred during the Frankist disturbances.

1558 CE: JEWISH TALMUD BURNING — Rome during time of Cardinal Ghislieri.

1559 CE: JEWISH TALMUD BURNING — Rome during time of Sextus Sinensis.

1567 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First Jewish university Jeshiva was founded in Poland.

1577 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — A Hebrew printing press is established in Safed, the first press in Palestine and the first in Asia.

1580 CE-1764 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First session of the Council of Four Lands (Va’ad Arba’ Aratzot) in Lublin, Poland. 70 delegates from local Jewish kehillot meet to discuss taxation and other issues important to the Jewish community.

1593 CE: TALMUD — Attack on the edited Talmud was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII (1575 CE-1585 CE), and in 1593 Clement VIII renewed the old interdiction against reading or owning it.

1602 CE-1605 CE: TALMUD — Increasing study of the Talmud in Poland led to the issue of a complete edition restoring the original murderous and perverted texts

1621 CE-1630 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Shelah HaKadosh writes his most famous work after emigrating to the Land of Israel.

1623 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First time separate (Va’ad) Jewish Sejm for Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

1626 CE-1676 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — False Messiah Sabbatai Zevi.

1633 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews of Poznań granted a privilege of forbidding Christians to enter into their city.

1645 CE: TALMUD — In Basel, Switzerland the whole Talmud was published in installments.

1648 CE: TALMUD — In Amsterdam the Benveniste Talmud was published and may have been based on the censored Lublin Talmud and included many of the censors’ errors.

1648 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jewish population of Poland reached 450,000 (i.e., 4% of the 1,1000,000 population of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is Jewish), Bohemia 40,000 and Moravia 25,000. Worldwide population of Jewry is estimated at 750,000.

1648 CE-1655 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Ukrainian Cossack Bohdan Chmielnicki leads a massacre of Polish gentry and Jewry that leaves an estimated 65,000 Jews dead and a similar number of gentry. The total decrease in the number of Jews is estimated at 100,000.

1648 CE-1750s CE: POLISH HISTORY — Annus Mirabilis — According to the Zohar, the year 1648 CE was to be the mystical year of resurrection, when the Jews could expect deliverance from their more than millennium long exile. Heinrich Graetz, a German Jew, a devotee of the Enlightenment and author of one of the most frequently cited histories of the Jewish people, calls the Zohar that “lying book” and by extension impugns the entire Kabbalistic tradition. Since the Enlightenment was in many ways a direct result of the disappointment which followed from the failure of the Messianic expectations which reached their fever pitch and denouement in 1750s CE, his skepticism is understandable, as is his scorn for the Kaballah, the mish-mash what he considered Gnostic and Talmudic mumbo-jumbo that had led to the rise and fall of Messianic hope in the first place. Graetz espoused a worldview which was the complete antithesis of the Messianic fever of the 1750s CE. He was so convinced in his opposition to the Kaballah because he had the benefit of historical hindsight and could see where its vaporous illusions were leading the Jewish people. Expectation of redemption fostered by widespread dissemination of Kabbalistic doctrine made the Jews, in Graetz’s words, “more reckless and careless than was their custom at other times” in a hotbed period of Kabbalistic thought.

1655 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell.

1660 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — In 1660 CE, in the turmoil following the death of Mulhim Ma’an, the Druze destroyed Safed and Tiberias, with only a few of the former Jewish residents returning to Safed by 1662 CE.

1679 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews of Yemen expelled to Mawza

1700 CE-1760 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov, founds Hasidic Judaism, a way to approach God through meditation and fervent joy. He and his disciples attract many followers, and establish numerous Hasidic sects. The European Jewish opponents of Hasidim (known as Mitnagdim) argue that one should follow a more scholarly approach to Judaism. Some of the more well-known Hasidic sects today include Bobover, Breslover, Gerer, Lubavitch (Chabad) and Satmar Hasidim.

1700 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Judah HeHasid makes aliyah to Palestine accompanied by hundreds of his followers. A few days after his arrival, Rabbi Yehuda dies suddenly.

1700 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Sir Solomon de Medina is knighted by William III, making him the first Jew in England to receive that honor.

1707 CE: TALMUD — Some copies of the Talmud were confiscated in the province of Brandenburg, Germany but were restored to their owners by command of Frederick, the first king of Prussia.

1720 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Unpaid Arab creditors burn the synagogue unfinished by immigrants of Rabbi Yehuda and expel all Ashkenazi Jews from Jerusalem. See also Hurva Synagogue

1720 CE-1797 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Elijah of Vilna, the Vilna Gaon.

1729 CE-1786 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Moses Mendelssohn and the Haskalah (Enlightenment) movement. He strove to bring an end to the isolation of the Jews so that they would be able to embrace the culture of the Western world, and in turn be embraced by gentiles as equals. The Haskalah opened the door for the development of all the modern Jewish denominations and the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language, but it also paved the way for many who, wishing to be fully accepted into Christian society, converted to Christianity or chose to assimilate to emulate it.

1740 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Parliament of Great Britain passes a general act permitting Jews to be naturalized in the American colonies. Previously, several colonies had also permitted Jews to be naturalized without taking the standard oath “upon the true faith of a Christian.”

1740 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Ottoman authorities invite Rabbi Haim Abulafia (1660 CE-1744 CE), renowned Kabbalist and Rabbi of Izmir, to come to the Holy Land. Rabbi Abulafia is to rebuild the city of Tiberias, which has lain desolate for some 70 years. The city’s revival is seen by many as a sign of the coming of the Messiah.

1740 CE-1750 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Thousands immigrate to Palestine under the influence of Messianic predictions. The large immigration greatly increases the size and strength of the Jewish Settlement in Palestine.

1747 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Abraham Gershon of Kitov (1701 CE-1761 CE) is the first immigrant of the Hasidic Aliyah. He is a respected Talmudic scholar, mystic, and brother-in-law of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of the Hasidic movement). Rabbi Abraham first settles in Hebron. Later, he relocates to Jerusalem at the behest of its residents.

1757 CE: TALMUD — A further attack on the Talmud took place in Poland (in what is now Ukrainian) when Bishop Dembowski, at the instigation of the Frankists, convened a public disputation at Kamianets-Podilskyi, and ordered all copies of the work found in his bishopric to be confiscated and burned.

1759 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Followers of Jacob Frank joined ranks of Polish szlachta (gentry) of Jewish origins and Rothschilds Crime Syndicate.

1772–1795 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Partitions of Poland between Russia, Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. Main bulk of World Jewry lives now in those 3 countries. Old privileges of Jewish communities are denounced.

1775–1781 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — American Revolution; guaranteed the freedom of religion.

1775 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Mob violence against the Jews of Hebron.

1789 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The French Revolution. In 1791 CE France grants full right to Jews and allows them to become citizens, under certain conditions.

1790 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — In the USA, President George Washington sends a letter to the Jewish community in Rhode Island (center of jewish slave trading). He writes that he envisions a country “which gives bigotry no sanction…persecution no assistance”. Despite the fact that the US was a predominantly Protestant country, theoretically Jews are given full rights. In addition, the mentality of Jewish immigrants shaped by their role as merchants in Eastern Europe meant they were well-prepared to compete in American society.

1791 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Russia creates the Pale of Settlement that includes land acquired from Poland with a huge Jewish population and in the same year Crimea. The Jewish population of the Pale was 750,000. 450,000 Jews lived in the Prussian and Austrian parts of Poland.

1795 CE: TALMUD — Slavuta, Ukraine Talmud edition was published by the Szapira brothers and is prized by many rebbis of Hasidic Judaism.

1798 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Nachman of Breslov travels to Palestine.

1799 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — While French troops were in Palestine besieging the city of Acre, Napoleon prepared a Proclamation requesting Asian and African Jews to help him conquer Jerusalem, but his unsuccessful attempt to capture Acre prevented it from being issued.

1799 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Mob violence on Jews in Safed.

1800 CE-1900 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Golden Age of Yiddish literature, the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language, and the revival of Hebrew literature.

1800s CE: TALMUD — The Vilna edition of the Talmud was subject to Russian government censorship. Many of these censored portions were recovered from uncensored manuscripts in the Vatican Library. Some modern editions of the Talmud contain some or all of this material, either at the back of the book, in the margin, or in its original location in the text.

1808 CE-1840 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Large-scale aliyah in hope of Hastening Redemption in anticipation of the arrival of the Messiah in 1840 CE.

1820 CE-1860 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The development of Orthodox Judaism, a set of traditionalist movements that resisted the influences of modernization that arose in response to the European emancipation and Enlightenment movements; characterized by continued strict adherence to Halakha.

1830 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Greece grants citizenship to Jews.

1830 CE: TALMUD — French Chamber of Peers regarding state recognition of the Jewish faith, Admiral Verhuell declared himself unable to agree due to their refusal to recognize Jesus as the Messiah or for their possession of the Talmud. In the same year the Abbé Chiarini published a voluminous work entitled Théorie du Judaïsme, in which he announced a translation of the Talmud, advocating for the first time a version that would make the work generally accessible, and thus serve for attacks on Judaism: only two out of the projected six volumes of this translation appeared. Of course, the totally inappropriate term “anti-Semitism” was tossed around repeatedly even though 90+% are Khazar Ashkenazis with virtually no Semite DNA.

1831 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jewish militias take part in the defense of Warsaw against Russians.

1834 CE-1835 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Muslims, Druze attack Jews in Safed, Hebron & in Jerusalem.

1835 CE: TALMUD — Vilna Lithuania Talmud edition was published after an acrimonious dispute with the Szapira family. This edition has been used in the production of more recent editions of Talmud Bavli. The text of the Vilna editions is considered not to be uniformly reliable.

1837 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Moses Haim Montefiore is knighted by Queen Victoria

1837 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Galilee earthquake of 1837 CE devastates Jewish communities of Safed and Tiberias.

1838 CE-1933 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Yisroel Meir ha-Kohen (Chofetz Chaim) opens an important yeshiva. He writes an authoritative Halakhic work, Mishnah Berurah.

1850s CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Beginning of the rise of classical Reform Judaism. Rabbi Israel Salanter develops the Mussar Movement. While teaching that Jewish law is binding, he dismisses current philosophical debate and advocates the ethical teachings as the essence of Judaism. Positive-Historical Judaism, later known as Conservative Judaism, is developed.

1841 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — David Levy Yulee of Florida is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first Jew elected to Congress.

1851 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Norway allows Jews to enter the country. They are not emancipated until 1891 CE.

1858 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews emancipated in England.

1860 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Alliance Israelite Universelle, an international Jewish organization is founded in Paris with the goal to protect Jewish rights as citizens.

1860 CE-1875 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Moshe Montefiori builds Jewish neighbourhoods outside the Old City of Jerusalem starting with Mishkenot Sha’ananim.

1860 CE-1864 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews are taking part in Polish national movement, that was followed by January rising.

1860 CE-1943 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Henrietta Szold: educator, author, social worker and founder of Hadassah.

1861 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Zion Society is formed in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

1862 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews are given equal rights in Russian-controlled Congress Poland. The privileges of some towns regarding prohibition of Jewish settlement are revoked. In Leipzig, Moses Hess publishes the book Rome and Jerusalem, the first book to call for the establishment of a Jewish socialist commonwealth in Palestine. The book is also notable for giving the impetus for the Labor Zionist movement.

1867 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews emancipated in Hungary.

1868 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Benjamin Disraeli becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Though converted to Christianity as a child, he is the first person of Jewish descent to become a leader of government in Europe.

1870 CE-1890 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Russian Zionist group Hovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion) and Bilu (est. 1882 CE) set up a series of Jewish settlements in the Land of Israel, financially aided by Baron Edmond James de Rothschild. In Rishon LeZion Eliezer ben Yehuda revives Hebrew as spoken modern language.

1870 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews emancipated in Italy.

1871 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jews emancipated in Germany.

1873 CE: MYSTICISM OF BABYLON — George Smith, British Assyriologist, arrived at the ruins of Nineveh outside Mosul (Iraq). Over the next few weeks he found tablets referring to more pieces of the Gilgamesh mythical story, a record of kings in the Babylonian dynasties, as well as lists of cuneiform symbols.

1875 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Reform Judaism’s Hebrew Union College is founded in Cincinnati. Its founder was Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, the architect of American Reform Judaism.

1877 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — New Hampshire becomes the last state to give Jews equal political rights.

1878 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Petah Tikva is founded by religious pioneers from Jerusalem, led by Yehoshua Stampfer.

1879 CE: BABYLON — The clay Cyrus Cylinder was discovered in Iraq by the Assyro-British archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam in the foundations of the Esagila, the main temple of Babylon, and was later placed in the British Museum in London. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BCE, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was later considered as the world’s first declaration of human rights.

1880 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — World Jewish population around 7.7 million, 90% in Europe, mostly Eastern Europe; around 3.5 million in the former Polish provinces.

1881–1884, 1903–1906, 1918–1920 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Three major waves of pogroms kill tens of thousands of Jews in Russia and Ukraine. More than two million Russian Jews emigrate in the period

1881 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The First Congress of all Zionist Unions for the colonization of Palestine was held at Focşani, Romania.

1882 CE-1903 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The First Aliyah, a major wave of Jewish immigrants to build a homeland in Palestine.

1886 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Sabato Morais and Alexander Kohut begin to champion the Conservative Jewish reaction to American Reform, and establish The Jewish Theological Seminary of America as a school of ‘enlightened Orthodoxy’.

1890 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The term “Zionism” is coined by an Austrian Jewish publicist Nathan Birnbaum in his journal Self Emancipation and was defined as the national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel.

1890s CE: TALMUD — Brisker method of studying the Talmud by Rabbi Hayyim Soloveitchik (1853–1918). His method involves a highly analytical analysis of the differing opinions by placing them within a categorical structure.

1890s CE: Professor Moses Mielziner (1828 CE-1903 CE), an American Reform rabbi and author, delivered a speech before the senior class in Cincinnati, “We are also glad to notice that among Gentiles the study of the Talmud is more or less spreading, as we have the experience that a great number of Gentiles and almost all the theological seminaries and public libraries subscribed to the Talmud, and also many queries concerning it frequently came to us from Gentiles. This all shows that the study of the Talmud among Gentiles is not very rare.”

1892 CE: TALMUD — Focus on the Anti-Humanity character of the Talmud led to publication of “The Talmud Unmasked: The Secret Rabbinical Teachings Concerning Christians (1892).”

1895 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First published book by Sigmund Freud.

1897 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — In response to the Dreyfus affair, Theodore Herzl writes Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), advocating the creation of a free and independent Jewish state in Israel.

1897 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Bund (General Jewish Labour Bund) is formed in Russia.

1897 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First Russian Empire Census: 5,200,000 of Jews, 4,900,000 in the Pale. The lands of former Poland have 1,300,000 Jews or 14% of population.

1897 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The First Zionist Congress was held at Basel, which brought the World Zionist Organization (WZO) into being.

1898 CE: TALMUD — An uncensored text edition called the Goldschmidt Talmud with German translation was published.

1902 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Dr. Solomon Schechter reorganizes the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and makes it into the flagship institution of Conservative Judaism.

1903 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — St. Petersburg’s Znamya newspaper publishes a literary hoax The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Kishinev Pogrom caused by accusations that Jews practice cannibalism.

1905 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — 1905 Russian Revolution accompanied by pogroms.

1908 CE: TALMUD — R. Rafael Nata Rabbinowicz, compiled the Dikduke Soferim, which recorded the variant readings in the Talmud using the famed Munich Manuscript 95 — published a series of volumes showing textual variants from early manuscripts and printings. 1870s and 1880s Rabbi Raphael Natan Nata Rabbinovitz engaged in historical study of Talmud Bavli and since then many Orthodox rabbis have approved of his work.

1915 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Yeshiva College (later University) and its Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Rabbinical Seminary is established in New York City for training in a Modern Orthodox milieu.

1916 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Louis Brandeis, on the first of June, is confirmed as the United States’ first Jewish Supreme Court justice. Brandeis was nominated by American President Woodrow Wilson.

1917 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Balfour Declaration which supported the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and protected the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities.

1917 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Yiddish People’s Voice, published in Stockholm, 12 January 1917.

1917 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The British defeat the Turks and gain control of Palestine. The British issue the Balfour Declaration which gives official British support for “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people … it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine”. Many Jews interpret this to mean that all of Palestine was to become a Jewish state.

1917 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Pale of Settlement is abolished, and Jews get equal rights. The Russian civil war leads to over 2,000 pogroms with tens of thousands murdered and hundreds of thousand made homeless.

1918 CE-1939 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The period between the two World Wars is often referred to as the “golden age” of hazzanut (cantors).

1919 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Over 1,200 Jews killed in Khmelnitsky pogrom. Around 4,000 Jews killed by Cossack troops in Tetiev. 800 Jews decapitated in assembly-line fashion in Dubovo. – Must put in context with all other major exaggerations during history.

1920 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — At the San Remo conference Britain receives the League of Nations’ British Mandate of Palestine. Five Jews killed and 216 wounded in the Jerusalem riots

1920s CE-TODAY CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — A variety of Jewish authors, including Gertrude Stein, Allen Ginsberg, Saul Bellow, Adrienne Rich and Philip Roth, sometimes drawing on Jewish culture and history, flourish and become highly influential on the Anglophone literary scene.

1921 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — British military administration of the Mandate is replaced by civilian rule.

1921 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Britain proclaims that all of Palestine east of the Jordan River is forever closed to Jewish settlement, but not to Arab settlement.

1921 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Polish–Soviet peace treaty in Riga. Citizens of both sides are given rights to choose the country. Hundred thousands of Jews, especially small businesses forbidden in the Soviets, move to Poland.

1922 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Reform Rabbi Stephen S. Wise established the Jewish Institute of Religion in New York. (It merged with Hebrew Union College in 1950 CE.)

1923 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Britain gives the Golan Heights to the French Mandate of Syria. Arab immigration is allowed; Jewish immigration is not.

1924 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — 2,989,000 Jews according to religion poll in Poland (10.5% of total). Jewish youth consisted 23% of students of high schools and 26% of students of universities.

1926 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Prior to World War I, there were few Hasidic yeshivas in Europe. On Lag BaOmer 1926, Rabbi Shlomo Chanoch Hacohen Rabinowicz, the fourth Radomsker Rebbe, declared, “The time has come to found yeshivas where the younger generation will be able to learn and toil in Torah”, leading to the founding of the Keser Torah network of 36 yeshivas in pre-war Poland.

1929 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — A long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalates into the 1929 Palestine riots. The riots took the form in the most part of attacks by Arabs on Jews resulting in the 1929 Hebron massacre, the 1929 Safed pogrom and violence against Jews in Jerusalem.

1930 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — World Jewry: 15,000,000. Main countries USA(4,000,000), Poland (3,500,000 11% of total), Soviet Union (2,700,000 2% of total), Romania (1,000,000 6% of total). Palestine 175,000 or 17% of total 1,036,000.

1933 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Hitler takes over Germany; his anti-Semitic sentiments are well-known, prompting numerous Jews to emigrate.

1935 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Regina Jonas became the first woman to be ordained as a rabbi.

1937 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Adin Steinsaltz born, author of the first comprehensive Babylonian Talmud commentary since Rashi in the 11th century.

1939 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The British government issues the ‘White Paper’. The paper proposed a limit of 10,000 Jewish immigrants for each year between 1940 CE-1944 CE, plus 25,000 refugees for any emergency arising during that period.

1938 CE-1945 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Holocaust (Ha Shoah), resulting in the methodical extermination of nearly 6 million Jews across Europe. Red Cross says 273,000. – Must put in context with all other major exaggerations during history. They said Romans killed 4 Billion Jews.

1940s CE-TODAY CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Various Jewish filmmakers, including Billy Wilder, Woody Allen, Mel Brooks and the Coen Brothers, frequently draw on Jewish philosophy and humor, and become popularly successful.

1941 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Muslim residents of Baghdad carried out a savage pogrom against their Jewish compatriots. In this pogrom, known by its Arabic name al-Farhud, about 200 Jews were murdered and thousands wounded, on June 1-2. Jewish property was plundered and many homes set ablaze.

1945–1948 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Post-Holocaust refugee crisis. British attempts to detain Jews attempting to enter Palestine illegally.

1946–1948 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The violent struggle for the creation of a Jewish state in the British mandate of Palestine is intensified by Jewish defense groups: Haganah, Irgun, and Lehi (group).

1947 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The United Nations approves the creation of a Jewish State and an Arab State in the British mandate of Palestine.

1948 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — David Ben-Gurion proclaiming Israeli independence on May 14, 1948, below a portrait of Theodor Herzl

1948 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The State of Israel declares itself as an independent Jewish state hours before the British Mandate is due to expire. Within eleven minutes, it is de facto recognized by the United States. Andrei Gromyko, the Soviet Union’s UN ambassador, calls for the UN to accept Israel as a member state. The UN approves.

1948 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Arab-Israeli War: Syria, Iraq, Transjordan, Lebanon and Egypt invade Israel hours after its creation. The attack is repulsed, and Israel conquers more territory. A Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim lands results, as up to a million Jews flee or are expelled from Arab and Muslim nations. Most settle in Israel. See also 1949 CE Armistice Agreements.

1948 CE-1949 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Almost 250,000 Holocaust survivors make their way to Israel. “Operation Magic Carpet” brings thousands of Yemenite Jews to Israel.

1956 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The 1956 CE Suez War Egypt blockades the Gulf of Aqaba, and closes the Suez canal to Israeli shipping. Egypt’s President Nasser calls for the destruction of Israel. Israel, England, and France go to war and force Egypt to end the blockade of Aqaba, and open the canal to all nations.

1960s CE: TALMUD — New edition under the name of Gemara Shelemah (complete Gemara) under the editorship of Menachem Mendel Kasher but was not completed due to his death. This edition contained a comprehensive set of textual variants and a few selected commentaries.

1960s CE-1980s CE: TALMUD — Talmud El Am, “Talmud to the people”, was published in Israel

1964 CE: TALMUD — Focus on the Anti-Humanity character of the Talmud led to publication of Elizabeth Dilling’s “The Plot against Christianity (1964).”

1964 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jewish-Christian relations are revolutionized by the Roman Catholic Church’s Vatican II.

1966 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888 CE-1970 CE) becomes the first Hebrew writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature.

1967 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Egyptian President Nasser demands that the UN dismantle the UN Emergency Force I (UNEF I) between Israel and Egypt. The UN complies and the last UN peacekeeper is out of Sinai and Gaza by May 19.

1967 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the strategic Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and states that Egypt is in a state of war with Israel. Egyptian troops begin massing in the Sinai.

1967 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Six-Day War. Israel launches a pre-emptive strike against Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. Israeli aircraft destroy the bulk of the Arab air forces on the ground in a surprise attack, followed by Israeli ground offensives which see Israel decisively defeat the Arab forces and capture the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights.

1967 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Arab Leaders meet in Khartoum, Sudan. The Three No’s of Khartoum: No recognition of Israel. No negotiations with Israel. No peace with Israel.

1968 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Rabbi Mordechai Kaplan formally creates a separate Reconstructionist Judaism movement by setting up the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College in Philadelphia.

1969 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — First group of African Hebrew Israelites begin to migrate to Israel under the leadership of Ben Ammi Ben Israel.

1969 CE: TALMUD — The Steinsaltz Talmud in modern Hebrew

1972 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Sally Priesand became the first female rabbi ordained in America, and is believed to be only the second woman ever to be formally ordained in the history of Judaism.

1972 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Mark Spitz sets the record for most gold medals won in a single Olympic Games (seven) in the 1972 CE Summer Olympics. The Munich massacre occurs when Israeli athletes are taken hostage by Black September terrorists. The hostages are killed during a failed rescue attempt.

1973 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Yom Kippur War. Egypt and Syria, backed up by expeditionary forces from other Arab nations, launch a surprise attack against Israel on Yom Kippur. After absorbing the initial attacks, Israel recaptures lost ground and then pushes into Egypt and Syria. Subsequently, OPEC reduces oil production, driving up oil prices and triggering a global economic crisis.

1975 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — President Gerald Ford signs legislation including the Jackson-Vanik amendment, which ties U.S. trade benefits to the Soviet Union to freedom of emigration for Jews.

1975 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — United Nations adopts resolution equating Zionism with racism. Rescinded in 1991 CE.

1976 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Israel rescues hostages taken to Entebbe, Uganda.

1978 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — At Camp David, near Washington D.C., Israel and Egypt sign a comprehensive peace treaty, The Camp David Accord, which included the withdrawal of Israel from the Sinai.

1979–1983 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Operation Elijah: Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry.

1980 CE: “Jews must destroy the books of the Christians, i.e. the New Testament.” — Talmud: Shabbath 116a and Dr. Israel Shahak of Hebrew University reports that the Israelis burned hundreds of New Testament Bibles in occupied Palestine on March 23.

1982 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Lebanon War. Israel invades Southern Lebanon to drive out the PLO.

1983 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — American Reform Jews formally accept patrilineal descent, creating a new definition of who is a Jew.

1984 CE-1985 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Operations Moses, Joshua: Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry by Israel.

1984 CE-1995 CE: TALMUD — The Talmud of Babylonia. An American Translation.

1986 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Nathan Sharansky, Soviet Jewish dissident, is freed from prison.

1987 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Beginning of the First Intifada against invading Israelis.

1989 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Fall of the Berlin Wall between East and West Germany, collapse of the communist East German government, and the beginning of Germany’s reunification (which formally began in October 1990 CE).

1989 CE: TALMUD — The Steinsaltz Talmud in English – first volume published 1989

1990-2004 CE: TALMUD — The Schottenstein Talmud in English, in which the translation of the text is shown in bold and explanations are interspersed in normal type.

1990 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Soviet Union opens its borders for the three million Soviet Jews who had been held as virtual prisoners within their own country. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jews choose to leave the Soviet Union and move to Israel.

1990 CE-1991 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Iraq invades Kuwait, triggering a war between Iraq and Allied United Nations forces.

1991 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Operation Solomon: Rescue of the remainder of Ethiopian Jewry in a twenty-four-hour airlift.

1991 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Madrid Peace Conference opens in Spain, sponsored by the United States and the Soviet Union.

1991 CE-Today: TALMUD — The Iraqi rabbi Yaakov Chaim Sofer notes that the text of the Gemara has had changes and additions, and contains statements not of the same origin as the original. Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Talmud. Some scholars are indeed using outside sources to help give historical and contextual understanding of certain areas of the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud represents the written record of an iffy oral tradition. Conservative Judaism accepts the Talmud as authoritative. The Pharisees were later known as Rabbinic Judaism and involved their rejection of an Oral Torah and their denying a resurrection after death. Another movement that rejected the oral Torah was Karaism that developed as a reaction against the Talmudic Judaism of Babylonia and rejects the Oral Torah in favor of a strict adherence to the Old Testament. 1800s CE Reform Jews saw the Talmud as a product of late antiquity, having relevance merely as a historical document. Calling it a collection of controversies, dissertations, and prescriptions commonly designated by the name Talmud possesses for us no authority, from either the dogmatic or the practical standpoint. South Koreans reportedly hope to emulate Jews’ high academic standards by studying Jewish literature including the Talmud.

1993 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Israel and PLO sign the Oslo Accords.

1994 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Lubavitcher (Chabad) Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, dies. Notorious speech records the hateful and genocidal nature of far too many rabbis.

1994 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Israel and Jordan sign an official peace treaty. Israel cedes a small amount of contested land to Jordan, and the countries open official diplomatic relations, with open borders and free trade.

1995 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated. Netanyahu is primary benefactor of this.

1996 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Peres loses election to Benyamin (Bibi) Netanyahu (Likud party).

1999 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Ehud Barak elected Prime Minister of Israel.

2000 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Israel unilaterally withdraws its remaining forces from its security zone in southern Lebanon to the international border, fully complying with the UN Security Council Res. 425.

2000 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Camp David Summit.

2000 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The al-Aqsa Intifada begins.

2001 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Election of Ariel Sharon as Israel’s Prime Minister.

2001 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Jewish Museum of Turkey is founded by Turkish Jewry

2004 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Jewish Autonomous Oblast builds its first synagogue, Birobidzhan Synagogue, in accordance with halakha. Uriyahu Butler became the first member of the African Hebrew Israelite community to enlist in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF)

2005 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Government of Israel officially recognizes the Bnei Menashe people of North-East India as one of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, opening the door for thousands of people to immigrate to Israel.

2005 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Government of Israel withdraws its military forces and settlers from the Gaza Strip.

2005 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Prime Minister Ariel Sharon falls into a coma; Deputy Premier Ehud Olmert takes over as Acting Prime Minister

2006 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Ehud Olmert leads the Kadima party to victory in Israeli elections, becomes Prime Minister of Israel.

2006 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — A military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel started on July 12, after a Hezbollah cross-border raid into Israel. The war ended with the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 after 34 days of fighting. About 2,000 Lebanese and 159 Israelis were killed, and civilian infrastructure on both sides heavily damaged.

2008 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) launches Operation Cast Leaddoing mass murders and mass destruction in the Gaza Strip.

2009 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Benjamin Netanyahu becomes Prime Minister of Israel.

2012 CE: TALMUD — Steinsaltz Talmud, a new, modern English translation and the commentary of Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz includes color photos and illustrations.

2012 CE-2017 CE: TALMUD — Noé Edition of the Koren Talmud Bavli, by Adin Steinsaltz in Jerusalem.

2014 CE: JEWISH DEFINED DATE — Ariel Sharon dies, after undergoing a sudden decline in health, having suffered renal failure and other complications, after spending 8 years in a deep coma.

2017 CE: TALMUD — William Davidson Talmud was released.

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