TIMELINE OF SLAVERY – PATREON & PAYPAL CONTENT
6,800 BCE: The world’s first city-state emerges in Mesopotamia. Land ownership and the early stages of technology bring war—in which enemies are captured and forced to work as slaves.
3,000 BCE: Slavery arrives as part of ancient civilization needing heavy work done, along with armies, public works and social hierarchies.
2,575 BCE: Temple art celebrates the capture of slaves in battle. Egyptians capture slaves by sending special expeditions up the Nile River.
2,455 BCE-2,356 BCE: Mesopotamia — The Semitic Accadians impose their hegemony upon the Sumerian city-states. Mesopotamia is devastated by wars, the population is decimated, oppressed and enslaved by the Accadians. Many Sumerians flee to their colonies.
1,898 BCE: ASHKENAZI DERIVED TIMELINE — Joseph sold into slavery (Gen 37:5-28)
1,840 BCE-1,842 BCE: BIBLICAL — Nile River & Egypt — Amenemhet III becomes King and builds the “Labyrinth” at Harawa. Amenemhet III of the Middle Kingdom’s XII dynasty ascended to the throne of Egypt in 1,842 BCE, hired Jacob’s son Joseph, the jailed slave (whose brothers had sold him to slavers), to interpret dreams, then to oversee Egypt through drought to come. Joseph stored water and welcomed the descendants of Jacob/Israel to Egypt.
1,720 BCE: The Code of Hammurabi is the first surviving document to record the law relating to slaves
1,700 BCE: The bible suggests this period had slaves in Egypt.
1,500 BCE-1,280 BCE: ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS – JUDAISM & ISLAM — Time in Egypt – In this time, the Jews were held slaves by the Egyptians and eventually God freed them by using the plagues and Moses.
1,393 BCE-Today: FACT is Modern Jewish researchers find no evidence of Israelites in Egypt. Kings only mention one encounter on an expedition they ran into a nomadic (wondering tribe) and routed them out in the desert, he called Israelites. This means the Jewish Passover is a PURE FRAUD as Israelites were never slaves in Egypt. + 40 years to go 268 miles from Giza to Jerusalem = 268 miles/14,600 days = 96 feet/Day = 1/3 of a football field or 268 miles/14,600 days = 96 feet/Day
1,000 BCE: JEWISH STORY — Scholars now agree the Hebrew Bible dates back no earlier than the 1,000 BCE. Many scholars now question the historic value of biblical narratives covering earlier periods. Bible narratives describe the nomadic wanderings and enslavement in Egypt, the journey through the desert for 40 years to cover 268 miles, and the conquest of Canaan. NOTE: THE BIBLE AND THE FACTS DIVERGE ON DATES DURING THIS FOLLOWING TIME OF DAVID AND SOLOMON! Sometimes the differences exceed 100 years. Egypt recorded accurate times and only mentions Israel in an inscription erected by King Merneptah in Egypt, claiming he dealt a severe blow to a wondering tribe of Israelites. So nothing outside the Bible proves Israelis were Egyptian slaves or rebelled and left Egypt. The archaeological evidence does not support the biblical account in the Book of Joshua that the Israelites conquered the land and displaced the previous occupants. Quite the contrary, there seems to be a fair amount of cultural continuity with the peoples who inhabited the land in the centuries prior to the first known reference to Israel and the subsequent period. One possible scenario is that pre-monarchical Israel was made up of a mixture of groups consisting of refugees from Egypt, migratory peoples from Syria and Mesopotamia, and local Canaanite peoples, with each group contributing its own traditions into the mix.
800 BCE-600 BCE: USURY INTEREST — Both Plato and Aristotle believed usury was immoral and unjust. The Greeks at first regulate interest, and then deregulate it. After deregulation, there was so much unregulated debt that Athenians were sold into slavery and threatened revolt.
722 BCE: The Assyrians overwhelm the north of Israel and the ten northern tribes vanish from history – the majority of them probably dispersed or sold into slavery
600 BCE: Turkic Tribes — Six Main Turkic Groups made up the Turkified Scythians who invaded, enslaved, and created the Slavs and Thracians (early Indo-European tribes) in Caucasus and Balkans since 600 BCE. The Caucasus region, at the border of Europe and Asia, includes Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains with Europe’s highest mountain, Mount Elbrus (18,510 Ft). The Balkan region includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Turkey, Slovenia, & Turkmenistan bordering Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea, and Iran.
550 BCE: The city-state of Athens (Greece) uses as many as 30,000 slaves in its silver mines.
500 BCE: SLAVERY by Etruscans of Italy — Like many ancient societies, the Etruscans conducted campaigns during summer months, raiding neighboring areas, attempting to gain territory as a means of acquiring valuable resources, such as land, prestige, goods, and slaves. It is likely that individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back to their families and clans at high cost. Prisoners could also potentially be sacrificed on tombs as an honor to fallen leaders of Etruscan society, like the sacrifices made by Achilles for Patrocles.
464 BCE-463 BCE: SPARTA — Earthquake in Sparta, followed by slave revolt. Surrender of Thasos.
416 BCE: The Athenians, capturing Melos, kill all the males of the island and sell the women and children into slavery.
326 BCE: Ended DEBT BONDAGE (Slavery) — Nexum was a debt bondage contract in the early Roman Republic with essentially a free man pledged himself as a bond slave (nexus) as surety for a loan. He might also hand over his son as collateral. Although the bondsman could expect to face humiliation and some abuse, as a legal citizen he was supposed to be exempt from corporal punishment. Nexum was abolished to prevent abuses to the physical integrity of citizens who had fallen into debt bondage. Also, the better looking DEBT SLAVES suffered sexual harassment by the holder of the debt. Cicero considered the abolition of nexum primarily a political maneuver to appease the common people (plebs).
300 BCE-347 CE: Perversions of Romans & Greeks to offset shortage of SLAVES — Aristotle, an awful person in so many ways unlike Socrates, advocated that in the case of congenital deformity “a law that no deformed child shall live.” These babies would not be directly killed, but put in a clay pot or jar and deserted outside the front door or on the roadway – a Process called “Exposure”. The Twelve Tables of Roman law obliged him to put to death a child that was visibly deformed. Infanticide became a capital offense in Roman law in 374 CE, but offenders were rarely if ever prosecuted. We know all Roman contraception methods were useless leading to an excess number of unwanted pregnancies and resulting “Exposure” as families suffered poverty and were unable to feed more mouths. Perhaps discarded babies helped in offsetting the SLAVES shortage period after imperialism was cut back as slave traders nursed these excess children to trading age in hopes of a profit.
218 BCE-300s BCE: SLAVERY — Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus indicates that the Roman institution of slavery began with the legendary founder Romulus giving Roman fathers the right to sell their own children into SLAVERY, and kept growing with the expansion of the Roman state. SLAVE ownership was most widespread throughout the Roman citizenry from the Second Punic War (218 BCE–201 BCE) to the 300s CE. The Greek geographer Strabo (1st century CE) records how an enormous SLAVE trade resulted from the collapse of the Seleucid Empire (100 BCE–63 BCE). In ancient warfare, the victor had the right (informal as there were no specific laws) to enslave a defeated population; however, if a settlement had been reached through diplomatic negotiations or formal surrender, the people were by custom to be spared violence and enslavement. Ancient sources cite anywhere from hundreds to tens of thousands of such slaves captured in each war. These wars included all the major wars of conquest from the Monarchical period to the Imperial period, as well as the Social and Samnite Wars.
168 BCE: SLAVES TO MAKE WHEAT INTO BREAD IN ROME — The Roman Baker’s Guild, or Pistorum, was created. A pistore was a ‘pounder’, traditionally a greek SLAVE. The importance of bread to daily life meant that bakers were recognized as freemen of the city. All other craftsmen were SLAVES.
166 BCE: SLAVERY IN ROMAN EMPIRE — Delos in the eastern Mediterranean was made the main market for slaves. Multitudes of slaves were imported (forced) into Italy and were purchased by wealthy landowners in need of large numbers of slaves to labor on their estates for agricultural production which generated great wealth in Italy. The wealth created lead to widespread and rapid technological innovations. As much as 40% of the Roman Empire were slaves with upwards of two to three million slaves in Italy by 100s BCE or 35% to 40% of Italy’s population. Across the entire Roman Empire there were around five million slave or 10–15% of the total population of 50–60 million+ inhabitants. 49% of all slaves were owned by the elite, who made up less than 1.5% of the Empire’s population. About half of all slaves worked in the countryside where they were a small percentage of the population except on some large agricultural, especially imperial, estates; the remaining 25% served towns and cities as domestics and as workers in manufacturing and business. Roman slavery was not based on ideas of race as slaves came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean and many were enslaved indigenous Italians and also included Greeks and some jews. The slaves (especially the foreigners) had higher mortality rates and lower birth rates than natives, and were sometimes even subjected to mass expulsions. The average recorded age at death was 17.2 years for males & 17.9 years for females. The overall impact of slavery on the Italian genetics was insignificant though, because the slaves imported in Italy were native Europeans, and very few if any of them had extra European origin. In the rest of the Italian peninsula, the fraction of non-European slaves was definitively much lower. New slaves were primarily acquired by wholesale dealers who followed the Roman armies. Many people who bought slaves wanted strong slaves, mostly men. Child slaves cost less than adults. Julius Caesar once sold the entire population of a conquered region in Gaul, no fewer than 53,000 people, to slave dealers on the spot. Within the empire, slaves were sold at public auction or sometimes in shops, or by private sale in the case of more valuable slaves. Slave dealing was overseen by the Roman fiscal officials called quaestors. Sometimes slaves stood on revolving stands, and around each slave for sale hung a type of plaque describing his or her origin, health, character, intelligence, education, and other information pertinent to purchasers. Prices varied with age and quality, with the most valuable slaves fetching prices equivalent to thousands of today’s dollars. Because the Romans wanted to know exactly what they were buying, slaves were presented naked. The dealer was required to take a slave back within six months if the slave had defects that were not manifest at the sale, or make good the buyer’s loss. Slaves to be sold with no guarantee were made to wear a cap at the auction.
146 BCE: ROMAN SLAVERY — CARTHAGE — End of the Third Punic War. Carthage is destroyed and its lands become the Roman province Africa. Scipio Africanus the Younger sacks Carthage and enslaves its population.
100 BCE-70 BCE: ROMAN SLAVES — In the Late Roman Republic, about half the gladiators who fought in Roman arenas were slaves, though the most skilled were often free volunteers. Successful gladiators were occasionally rewarded with freedom. However gladiators, being trained warriors and having access to weapons, were potentially the most dangerous slaves. At an earlier time, many gladiators had been soldiers taken captive in war. Spartacus, who led the great slave rebellion of 73-71 BCE, was a rebel gladiator.
100s BCE-200 CE: ROMAN & GREEK SLAVERY — Slave markets existed in every city of the Empire, but outside Rome the major center was Ephesus, Greece that seemed to encourage slave trading from 100s BCE to 200 CE.
71 BCE: ROMAN SLAVES WERE MASS MURDERED — Roman senate sent a large army to deal with Spartacus and his fellow slaves at a place called Apulia. Third Servile War: The slaves in rebellion were decisively murdered by Roman forces near Petelia. Their leader Spartacus was killed. The army mass murdered 6,000 slaves taken prisoner and crucified and let them hang along the Appian Way (the main road into Rome) for several months as a warning to other slaves who might consider the possibility of rebelling against their Roman masters. Rome forbade the harboring of fugitive slaves, and professional slave-catchers were hired to hunt down runaways. Advertisements were posted with precise descriptions of escaped slaves, and offered rewards. If caught, fugitives could be punished by being whipped, burnt with iron, or killed. Those who lived were branded on the forehead with the letters FUG, for fugitivus. Sometimes slaves had a metal collar riveted around the neck (in Roman museum).
67 BCE-400s CE: ROMAN SLAVERY TAX — Pompey was credited with effectively eradicating large-scale piracy from the Mediterranean, but that only reduced extreme piracy and piracy remained a steady institution of kidnapping for the Roman slave supply. Piracy has a long history of adding to the slave trade and supplied Rome with slaves. Pirates operated with impunity from a number of strongholds. Augustine lamented the wide scale practice of kidnapping in North Africa. Augustus imposed a 2% tax on the sale of slaves that generate a large annual revenue indicating some 250,000 slave sales per year. The tax was increased to 4 percent by 43 CE.
50 BCE-70 CE: ROMAN & GREEK SLAVE PERVERSIONS — Perversions of Romans — Almost every available surface in the Roman Empire was imprinted with images of penises, statues displayed them, and even the Roman coins and Sports Trophies featured sodomy – The Statues shows one of their Gods, Pan, having sex with a goat, but he is half goat also. Well-endowed SLAVES were forced to keep theirs on show at all times.
31 BCE:ROMAN & GREEK SLAVE PERVERSIONS — Roman law didn’t consider SLAVE-SEX to be an infidelity when Augustus outlawed adultery and this drove up the attacks on slaves by the aristocracy. Rome was a Sex Slavery society that also ran on slaves so the Elitists minimized or eliminated their manual labor. Men and women captured during military conquests were shipped all over the Empire and auctioned off to the highest bidder & most became the property of aristocrats or the governments. Slaves had NO rights in Roman law until much later as the empire was declining. Slaves did every kind of manual labor and even analytical labor for their masters. The beautiful and not so beautiful ones were used as sex SLAVES.
27 BCE-284 CE: ROMAN SLAVES MADE ECONOMY GREAT — Roman imperial period saw the increase in wealth amongst the Roman elite and the substantial growth of slavery which both transformed the economy. Although the economy was dependent on slavery, Rome was not the most slave-dependent culture in history. Among the Spartans, for instance, the slave class of helots outnumbered the free by about seven to one, according to Herodotus. Roman slaves worked in many areas: barber, butler, cook, hairdresser, handmaid, wet-nurse or nursery attendant, teacher, secretary, seamstress, accountant, engraver, shoemaker, baker, mule driver, and prostitute and physician. A large elite household might be supported by a staff of hundreds. Household slaves likely enjoyed the highest standard of living among Roman slaves.
___________________ BCE to CE transition ________________
120 CE: SLAVERY — Roman military campaigns capture slaves by the thousands. Some estimate the population of Rome is more than half slave.
500 CE: SLAVERY — Anglo-Saxons enslave the native Britons after invading England.
650s CE-Today: Arab or Islamic slave trade began in the middle of the seventh century and survives today in the NATO collapsed state of Libya and Wahhabi Saudi Arabia.
700s CE: SLAVERY — In Africa the Arab-Berbers in the north and the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia exported slaves from along the Nile River. The African slave trade through the Sahara is so extensive that a new town, Zawila, is established as a trading station
730 CE-731 CE: KHAZAR’S SLAVES — A Khazar army led by Barjik, the son of the Khazar khagan, invaded the Umayyad provinces of Jibal and Adharybaydjian during the course of the decades-long Khazar-Arab War of the early 8th century. Barjik’s expedition into northern Iran (and later into Kurdistan and northern Mesopotamia) may have been an attempt to establish Khazar rule south of the Caucasus Mountains. An outnumbered Umayyad force led by a general engaged the Khazars for three days, but many of their hired converts to Islam deserted and the Caliph’s forces were overwhelmed and defeated and the general with thousands of his soldiers were killed. The victorious KHAZAR Barjik mounted the general’s head on top of the throne from which he commanded his battles in his Middle Eastern campaign. The Khazars murdered most of the civilians in the city of Ardabil and ENSLAVED the rest — The KHAZARS then occupied Ardabil. The next year, however, Barjik led an army to Mosul and was defeated and withdrew north of the Caucasus Mountains, to their KHAZAR EMPIRE as the KHAZAR empire began to crumble.
850 CE: SLAVERY — The caliphs in Baghdad begin to employ Turkish slaves, or Mamelukes, in their armies
960 CE: POLISH ASHKENAZI SLAVE TRADERS — Jewish slave trader from Spain, Abraham Jakov, travels to Poland & maps out first description of Poland & Kraków as Jewish traders become very active in Central Europe. Mieszko I mints coins with Hebrew letters on them, though some attribute the coins to the times of Mieszko the Old.
1000 CE: SLAVERY — Slavery is a normal practice in England’s rural, agricultural economy, as destitute workers place themselves and their families in a form of debt bondage to landowners.
1215 CE: SLAVERY IN ENGLAND — Magna Carta was a license for CIVIL WAR(S) by sociopathic barons to impose virtual SLAVERY on their workers and the Barons were the most reactionary element in English society, and were susceptible to easy manipulation by Venice and the BLACK NOBILITY, which had now conquered Byzantium and was approaching the peak of its power.
1250 CE-1517 CE: SLAVES RISE TO POWER AND DEFEAT CRUSADERS – Turkic Tribes — Mamluks, were enslaved Turkic peoples that developed from the ranks of slave soldiers to become the knightly military caste in Egypt in 1300s CE. Over time these knightly Mamluks became the rulers of Middle Age Egypt attaining the power & rank of Sultan by seizing the sultanate centered on Egypt and Syria. The Mamluk Sultanate famously defeated the western European Christian Crusaders in 1154 CE–1169 CE and 1213 CE–1221 CE, effectively driving them out of Egypt and the Levant. In 1302 CE the mamluks formally expelled the last Crusaders from the Levant, ending the era of the Crusades.
1299 CE-1923 CE: SLAVERY — Ottoman Empire – Slaves in Ottoman society were primarily personal servants and bodyguards. Slave women also regularly played the role of concubine, and mothered the heirs of the Turkish ruling class. The great dignitaries directed the affairs of Ottoman society, especially statecraft and war, through their slave households. This meant that slaves managed important facets of Ottoman life. In particular, the imperial slave household administered the secular side of the sultan’s government, and constituted the backbone of the sultan’s field army. This kind of thinking about slavery may have survived to close the end of the Empire and as late as 1908 CE, female slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire.
1380 CE: SLAVERY — In the aftermath of the Black Plague, Europe’s slave trade thrives in response to a labor shortage. Slaves pour in from all over the continent, the Middle East, and North Africa.
1400 CE: SLAVES IN AFGHANISTAN — Timur the Lame invades Georgia destroys most of the towns in Western Georgia. 60,000 survivors were taken back to the Timurid Empire in western Afghanistan as slaves.
1444 CE: SLAVERY — Portuguese traders bring the first large cargo of slaves from West Africa to Europe by sea—establishing the Atlantic slave trade.
1446 CE: SLAVERY — Portugal claims ownership of the region of Guinea, subsequently the centre of their slave trade on the west African coast
1466 CE: SLAVERY — The Portuguese settlers on the Cape Verde islands are granted a monopoly on the new slave trade
1492 CE-1497 CE: SLAVERY — When the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 CE, many fled over the border to Portugal. But in 1497 CE the Portuguese government banished Jews from that country as well. Many of the Jews fled to other more hospitable European countries, such as Holland, but some sailed to Brazil to start over in this Portuguese territory. These settlements in the New World offered an opportunity for many Jews to settle in a new land. Jews settled on Caribbean islands & America. These Jewish settlers in the Caribbean had a major impact on both the region and America, with Spanish Jews dominating the slave trade out of Newport, Rhode Island. Caribbean Jews funded Jewish communities in America and often traveled & traded with America including the MASSIVELY PROFITABLE SLAVE TRADE out of Newwport! These Caribbean Jews were the missing link on how Jewish settlements were successful & funded in America. Jews led & build the use of slaves to exploit in labor intensive agriculture.
1492 CE-1600s CE: SLAVERY — A sizable Jewish community in Amsterdam had grown up when Jews started arriving from Spain & Portugal during the Inquisition.
1492 CE-1500s CE: SLAVERY — After Columbus claimed the New World, the Pope was asked to divide the land & he drew a line down the Western Hemisphere: everything east of the line, (most of Brazil) would belong to Portugal, and everything west of that was given to Spain. Later Holland, England, and France all fought against the Spanish and Portuguese to seize new lands for themselves.
1493 CE: SLAVERY — Columbus had a Jew on board named Luis de Torres who stayed behind on the island of Hispaniola with 39 other men at the settlement of La Navidad. When Columbus came back the end of that year, he found the whole garrison had been wiped out by internal strife and by an Indian attack, which had occurred in retaliation to the Spaniards’ abducting native women. The Indians remembered a man who spoke “offensively and disparagingly” about the Catholic faith, to dissuade conversion and it was likely the Jew de Torres. In 1508 CE, de Torres’s widow received a grant from the Spanish treasury in recompense for the services of her deceased husband. Some say de Torres settled instead in Cuba.
1500s CE: SLAVERY — Jews set up trade routes between Portugal and the colonies, and became wealthy large plantation owners in Brazil growing labor-intensive sugar cane exported to Madeira in Portugal, and it became the basic foundation of the entire Caribbean economy until 1700 CE. Sugar cane could be easily grown in the hot climates of South America and the Caribbean, then converted to sugar to be shipped to Europe. They needed slaves to do the work.
1500s CE: SLAVERY — Spain dominated most of Europe, including Holland, but Holland finally won its independence in 1581 CE and the new Dutch government established religious tolerance as one of its primary goals.
1500s CE-1800s CE: Turkic Ashkenazi SLAVE TRADE — AFRICAN SLAVES TAKEN BY SLAVE TRADERS TO AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN ISLANDS: The Fulani people of Western Africa, have Berber-Islamic roots and are found in Turkic speaking countries. Fulani or Fula people, numbering between 20 and 25 million people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region. The Fula people are traditionally believed to have roots in peoples from North Africa and the Middle East, who later intermingled with local West African ethnic groups. The ethnic groups are bound together by the Fula language and their Islamic religion and culture. A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 7 to 8 million are the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world. The majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people who work as farmers part of the year and do very little the rest of the year, perhaps as artisans or merchants. They inhabit many countries, mainly in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa, but also in Chad, Sudan and regions near the Red Sea. Many Fula were captured and taken to the Americas from 1500s CE-1800s CE as part of the Atlantic slave trade. They were largely captured from Senegal and Guinea, with a significant percentage also taken from Mali and Cameroon. Victims of the vast slavery campaigns selling humans in East Europe, Turkey, the Levant, and America. There should be genetic DNA studies done by non-Ashkenanzi researchers (especially no Rabbis) to determine the origins of the Fulani and the Ashkenazi peoples.
1526 CE: SLAVERY — Spanish explorers bring the first African slaves to settlements in what would become the United States. These first African-Americans stage the first known slave revolt in the Americas.
1550 CE: SLAVERY — Slaves are depicted as objects of conspicuous consumption in much Renaissance art.
1505 CE-1520 CE: CRIMEAN KHAZAR-TURKIC-MONGOLS ENSLAVE FINNISH CHILDREN — Blonde cargoes: Finnish children in the slave markets of medieval Crimea — “Roxelana is believed to have been born in the western part of Ukraine around 1505 CE. Sometime between 1515 CE and 1520 CE, when she was around 15 years of age, she was abducted by the Crimean Tatars on one of their SLAVE raids… She most probably followed the route that thousands of her compatriots followed in the sixteenth century – walking in long caravans of captives to the biggest SLAVE market in the Black Sea region..” She later appeared in the SLAVE market in Istanbul, and, according to legend, was purchased for the imperial harem by Ibrahim Pasha, a close friend of the young Crown Prince Suleiman. Ibrahim presented her to Suleiman, probably before the latter became Sultan in 1520 CE. Her playful temperament and greatest singing ability soon won her the name of Hurrem [the “joyful” or “the Laughing One”], and that was probably what attracted Suleiman’s eye. She quickly became Suleiman’s favorite concubine, ousting from that position the beautiful Circassian concubine Mahidevran, the mother of Suleiman’s first-born son Mustafa. Mustafa was killed on his father’s orders in 1553 CE after word spread that the son was planning to assassinate the Sultan, leaving Roxelana’s son Selim to inherit the Ottoman throne. Source: A Polish work published in 1861 CE, Poezye Samuela z Skrzypny Twardowskiego. 1550 CE: SLAVERY — Africans, bought in the Portuguese trading posts of west Africa, are shipped across the Atlantic as slaves
1535 CE:-1547 CE: ENGLAND CONVERTED TO BE SLAVE-TRADING VENETIAN BLACK NOBILITY — HENRY VIII ENGLAND — Henry VIII divorce effectively threw open the door for the cultural, political, and financial takeover of England by agents of Black Nobility Mafia of Venice who shaped a police-state political terror with Venetian bankers in full control of a growing English foreign debt. Within 50 years the Venetian Mafia transformed England into a criminal run usurious, SLAVE-TRADING, imperial power of Great Britain, under the dictatorship of an oligarchic Bankster Venetian party, which had been transplanted directly from the lagoons of Venice.
1588 CE: SLAVERY — The Spaniards tried to overpower England, but the Spanish Armada was defeated by the British Royal Navy marked the beginning of Spain’s downfall as master of Europe. A weakened Spain meant that her colonies were vulnerable to other European powers looking to establish themselves in the New World.
1609 CE: SLAVERY — In Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), the administrative and political center of the Empire, about a fifth of the population consisted of slaves in 1609 CE. Black castrated slaves, were tasked to guard the imperial harems, while white castrated slaves filled administrative functions. Slaves were actually often at the forefront of Ottoman politics. The majority of officials in the Ottoman government were bought slaves, raised free, and integral to the success of the Ottoman Empire from 1300s CE-1800s CE. Many officials themselves owned a large number of slaves, although the Sultan himself owned by far the largest amount. By raising and specially training slaves as officials in palace schools such as Enderun, the Ottomans created administrators with intricate knowledge of government and fanatic loyalty.
1619 CE: SLAVERY — The first Africans arrive in Virginia. They appear to have been indentured servants, but the institution of hereditary lifetime service for blacks soon develops. The vast majority of slaves will be transported from Africa to the West Indies.
1619 CE: SLAVERY — The first 20 African slaves arrive in Virginia aboard a Dutch ship.
1620s CE: BRITISH SLAVERY IN WEST INDIES — The first successful English SLAVE colonies in the West Indies were founded to produce cheap sugar and tobacco plantations with local and imported slave labor. 1628 CE: SLAVERY — Jews were established in Barbados.
1630’s CE: SLAVERY — Holland was a burgeoning rival to Spain and Portugal and was hoping to gain on Spain’s misfortunes by capturing Portuguese and Spanish territories in the New World. Hollanders sailed into the harbor of Recife, in the northeast corner of Brazil, conquered the region, and claimed it for The Netherlands. They had the help of many of the secret Jewish settlers living in Brazil. Since the Jews had been persecuted by the Portuguese, their sympathies lay with the more tolerant Dutch. Dutch West Indies Company liked having their Jews in the region.
1635 CE: SLAVERY — French holdings included the small island of Martinique, on the eastern edge of the Caribbean to the north of Venezuela and Haiti, which comprises half of the island containing Santo Domingo. There was an early, sizable Jewish population on Martinique; however, there were never notable Jewish settlements in what is now Haiti. At early date there were Jewish merchants and traders already settled in Martinique arriving earlier with the Dutch.
1641 CE: SLAVERY — Massachusetts becomes the first British colony to legalize slavery.
1642 CE: SLAVERY — Dutch wanted to send settlers to colonize their new territory in Brazil, a group of 600 of the Amsterdam Jews sailed for Brazil calling themselves the “Holy Congregation”, and soon numbered up to four thousand. They prospered in their traditional occupations as traders and merchants, but also plantation owners.
1642 CE-1667 CE: SLAVERY — Surinam a boatload of Jews arrived from Britain in 1652 CE & Jews were offered rights that they did not have anywhere else, including he right to be full British citizens. 1667 CE British surrendered Surinam to the Dutch at the Treaty of Breda in exchange for New Amsterdam (Later New York City). The Dutch intended for the Jews to maintain the rights they had under British rule. But all British subjects were to be allowed to leave, and a ship was sent by His Majesty Charles II to carry all those wishing to depart, but the Dutch government would not allow the Jews to leave fearing all the wealth would disappear with them! A historical list shows ten Jews, mostly in the Pereira family, and their 822 slaves wished to emigrate to Jamaica, but were not allowed to do so. By 1730 CE the Jewish plantation-based economy of Surinam, with its riches of sugar cane, coffee, and chocolate turned out to be the leading community of the Americas. It far surpassed the wealth of such better known places as Philadelphia, Boston, and New York. Jewish plantations & sugar crops depended on slave labor imported from Africa & by the 1690s CE, these slaves began rebelling and escaped into the jungle. There they set up communities of their own, emerging periodically to attack the plantations. This resulted in a shortage of labor at the same time there was a banking crisis in Holland. These factors, along with the discovery that sugar could be obtained from beets, a crop that could be grown in Europe, caused Surinam’s economic decline, from which it has never recovered.
1645 CE: SLAVERY — First African slave ship, the ‘Rainbowe’, sets sail under command of Captain Smith, captures and imports African slaves into Massachusetts. — Massachusetts Colonial Records
1650’s CE: SLAVERY — French conduct a mini-Inquisition on Martinique as many of the settlers were Catholic clerics serving as missionaries, including Jesuit priests who did not like the practices of the Jews and sought legislation to limit Jewish actions against slaves & the poor & for their crimes.
1650s CE: SLAVERY — A Barbados synagogue for Jews of Spanish or Portuguese descent was established. The original Barbados synagogue building is still standing but no longer serves as a place of worship and the cemetery is in disrepair, but is believed to be the oldest Jewish graveyard in the Western Hemisphere.
1650 CE: SLAVERY — Curacao had twelve Jewish families living there for the The Dutch West Indies Company was in charge of administering the Dutch colonies. The company ordered the governor to give these new settlers land, slaves to work the land, livestock and tools. The Jews settled in an area still known as Jodenwyk (Joden is “Jewish” in Dutch). In 1651 CE, a large number of Jewish settlers, in flight from the persisting battle between the Portuguese and Dutch in Brazil, arrived in Curacao. By 1750 CE, the population of Jews reached 2,000.
1654 CE-1660 CE: BRITISH SLAVE COLONIES — Cromwell made war on Spain, in exact conformity with Venetian requirements. Cromwell conquered: Jamaica, St. Helena, Barbados, Surinam, Dunkirk, and Leeward Islands. Jamaica, a center of the SLAVE trade, stood out in what was called the Western Design – making war on Spain for the New World. The City of London BANKSTERS demanded free trade including SLAVES. The BANKSTERS made Cromwell actively promoted the settlement of Jews as good merchants, but other merchants accused the Jews of unfair trade practices especially with slave trading. By 1655 CE The British, settling in Jamaica, turn the island into the major SLAVE market of the West Indies.
1654 CE: SLAVERY — Portuguese sent a fleet to reconquer their lost Brazilian territory & the siege lasted ten years. The Jews fought on the side of the Dutch while the Portuguese, who still lived there, and native Brazilian Indians sided with the Portuguese.
1655 CE: SLAVERY — The British, settling in Jamaica, soon turn the island into the major SLAVE market of the West Indies.
1656 CE: SLAVERY — Jews to establish a congregation in Willemstad, Curacao which is still in existence. They built a synagogue in 1692 CE. The Jewish community in Curacao was so strong that it helped the Newport, Rhode Island congregation in 1765 CE.
1657 CE: SLAVERY — The Dutch in South Africa purchase slaves to do domestic and agricultural work
1660s CE: SLAVERY — Surinam town of Joden Savanne (Jewish Savannah) was headquarters for the Jewish plantation owners. In 1734 CE, Ashkenazic Jews (of Dutch, German, or Eastern European descent) began arriving. The Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews did not get along well, and ultimately two congregations were founded. Sephardis, who were mostly wealthy and well-educated business people, were considered the elite of the Jewish people.
1660’s CE: SLAVERY — The practice of slavery becomes a legally recognized institution in British America. Colonial assemblies begin to enact laws known as slave codes, which restrict the liberty of slaves and protect the institution of slavery.
1661 CE: SLAVERY — Three Barbados Jewish businessmen requested permission to institute trade routes between Barbados and Surinam, which was still part of the British Empire. As will be seen repeatedly, even though the Jews had full legal citizenship and were allowed by the government to trade and conduct business, their success caused the other settlers to try to limit the scope of Jewish trade. British businessmen claimed the Jews traded more with the Dutch than the British, and the government did finally put limits on the Jews’ ability to trade. They were not allowed to purchase slaves, and were required to live in a Jewish ghetto.
1663 CE: SLAVERY — First major African revolt against slavery in Gloucester, Virginia.
1664 CE: SLAVERY — Peace was finally declared and the Portuguese conducted an Inquisition requiring citizens to profess to being a Catholic or be expelled or killed, so Jews pretended to convert (crypto-Jews) but kept their religion in their hidden societies. Sixteen Portuguese ships removed many Jews from Brazil and returned to Amsterdam.
1664 CE: SLAVERY — A large numbers of Jews from Brazil moved into Caribbean Islands. Jewish settlements rose up in Dutch colonies in the Caribbean like Surinam and Curacao, British colonies like Jamaica and Barbados, and French colonies such as Martinique. Jews fleeing Brazil also went to the North American colonies as well as to the Caribbean.
1665 CE: SLAVERY — Surinam, not an island but just north of Brazil was a British colony for a short while, and Jewish settlement started while it was British. Soon it became a Dutch colony, going by the name of Dutch Guiana. Surinam is has always been considered part of the Caribbean region because it is inaccessible by land from the rest of South America, and focuses on trade with the Caribbean. British citizens did not seem to want to settle in Surinam, so the British to encourage Jewish settlers by offering them full British citizenship, recognition of their Sabbath, and ten acres of land to build a synagogue. The Jews had never before in modern times had full citizenship in any country. It was around this same time that the Jews of Brazil were being forced from their homes. Therefore, it is natural that a large number of Jews were attracted to Surinam, given Britain’s uniquely hospitable attitude.
1667 CE: SLAVERY — The Jewish community became successful as traders and plantations and when the colony passed to the Dutch. Although the rights of the Jews were not changed, many Jews moved to Barbados to retain their British citizenship.
1671 CE: SLAVERY — British attracted Jews to their colony in Jamaica at both Kingston and Spanish Town. The Jews became economically successful there, but soon the citizens of Jamaica petitioned the British government to expel all members of the local Hebrew community, but the colonial governor in Jamaica, blocked the ban, but a special tax for Jews passed in 1693 CE.
1680s CE-1700 CE: SLAVERY — Newport, Rhode Island was the #1 traders of slaves and it was run by a Spanish Jew named Lopez who became very rich.
1683 CE: SLAVERY — King Louis XIV ordered all Jews expelled from French colonies in the New World, but the colonial government ignored the rule, as Jews continued to settle and flourish on Martinique. After the French Revolution, all legislative discrimination against Jews on Martinique ended.
1688 CE: SLAVERY — Aphra Behn’s novel Oroonoko makes an early protest against the inhumanity of the African slave trade
1688 CE: SLAVERY — Quakers in Philadelphia make first protest against slavery.
1700 CE: SLAVERY — Boston merchant Samuel Sewall publishes The Selling of Joseph, a very early anti-slavery tract
1700s CE-1720s CE: SLAVERY — The Crimean Khanate, for 300 years (650 CE-965 CE) the Khazars dominated eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus, and in early 1700s CE maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. Between 1530 CE and 1780 CE there were almost certainly 1 to 1.25 million Caucasians were enslaved by Muslims in the Ottoman Empire. Caucasian slavery was outlawed in early 1800s CE.
1703 CE-1783 CE: SLAVERY — Jews were banned from using indentured Christian servants, and were prohibited from holding any public positions. The Jewish communities flourished despite these restrictions. 1810s CE British declared equal rights for Jews in any colony it is known that 10% of Whites in Jamaica were Jews.
1735 CE: SLAVERY — John Peter Zenger, editor of the Weekly Journal, is acquitted of libelling the governor of New York on the grounds that what he published was true
1754 CE: SLAVERY — Quaker minister John Woolman publishes the first part of Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, an essay denouncing slavery
1770 CE: SLAVERY — The triangular trade, controlled from Liverpool, ships millions of Africans across the Atlantic as slaves
1776 CE: SLAVERY — The Declaration of Independence declares that “All men are created equal.” In spite of that, slavery remains a legal institution in all thirteen of the newly established states.
1777 CE: SLAVERY — Vermont amends its constitution to ban slavery. Over the next 25 years, other Northern states emancipate their slaves and ban the institution: Pennsylvania, 1780 CE; Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 1783 CE; Connecticut and Rhode Island, 1784 CE; New York, 1799 CE; and New Jersey, 1804 CE. Some of the state laws stipulate gradual emancipation.
1787 CE: SLAVERY — The Northwest Ordinance bans slavery in the Northwest Territory (what becomes the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin). The ordinance together with state emancipation laws create a free North.
1787 CE-1788 CE: SLAVERY — Drafted and ratified the United States Constitution does not directly mention the institution of slavery, but it addresses it indirectly in three places by granting Congress the authority to prohibit the importation of slaves after twenty years. It allows slaves to count using the “three-fifths” clause in Article I to count slaves for determining taxation and representation. For those purposes, all free persons in the districts, including indentured servants, are counted. To that total is added the number of “three fifths of all other persons”; i.e., slaves. Article IV, Section 2 required that a “person held to service or labor”in one state, who escapes to another state, “shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor shall be due.” Enforcement of the clause is not specified (see next paragraph).
1712 CE: SLAVERY — African revolt against slavery in New York.
1712 CE: SLAVERY — Pennsylvania passes law preventing importation of slaves.
1739 CE: SLAVERY — Major African revolt in Stono, South Carolina.
1741 CE: SLAVERY — African revolt in New York City.
1775 CE: SLAVERY — African soldiers fight in battles of Bunker Hill, Concord and Lexington.
1777 CE: SLAVERY — Vermont becomes first state to abolish slavery.
1781 CE: SLAVERY — Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes serfdom in the Austrian Habsburg dominions.
1783 CE: SLAVERY — Spain’s Inquisition to its colony of Cuba, and Cuban Jews were dispersed. Jews had been on Cuba for centuries, but were only lawfully allowed to settle in 1881 CE.
1787 CE: SLAVERY — The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is founded in Britain.
1787 CE: SLAVERY — The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is founded in London, with a strong Quaker influence
1787 CE: SLAVERY — A British ship lands a party of freed slaves as the first modern settlers in Sierra Leone, on the west coast of Africa
1787 CE: SLAVERY — Northwest Ordinance prohibits slavery in the Northwest Territories.
1787 CE: SLAVERY — U.S. Constitution is drafted.
1788 CE: SLAVERY — U.S. Constitution is officially ratified by the signing of New Hampshire on June 21, 1788 CE, thus extending slavery.
1789 CE: SLAVERY — During the French Revolution, the National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man, one of the fundamental charters of human liberties. The first of 17 articles states: “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.”
1789 CE: SLAVERY — U.S. Constitution officially replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789, when the first Federal Congress assembled in New York.CE
1789 CE: SLAVERY — The autobiography of Olaudah Equiano, a slave captured as a child in Africa, becomes a best-seller on both sides of the Atlantic
1792 CE: SLAVERY — Denmark controlled a few islands in the Caribbean, including St. Thomas and St. Croix, now part of United States Virgin Islands. There were Danish colonies with Jewish settlements.
1793 CE: SLAVERY — The US Congress passes Fugitive Slave Laws, enabling southern slave owners to reclaim escaped slaves in northern states
1793 CE: SLAVERY — Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin greatly increases the demand for slave labor.
1793 CE: SLAVERY — A federal fugitive slave law is enacted, providing for the return slaves who had escaped and crossed state lines.
1793 CE: SLAVERY — To enforce Article IV, Section 2, the U.S. Congress enacts the Fugitive Slave Law. It allows slave owners to cross state lines to recapture their slaves. They must then prove ownership in a court of law. In reaction, some Northern states pass personal liberty laws, granting the alleged fugitive slaves the rights to habeas corpus, jury trials, and testimony on their own behalf. These Northern state legislatures also pass anti-kidnapping laws to punish slave-catchers who kidnap free blacks, instead of fugitive slaves.
1800 CE: SLAVERY — Africans in Philadelphia petition Congress to end slavery.
1800s CE-1820s CE: SLAVERY — Slavery was a legal and important part of the economy of the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman society, but the slavery of Caucasians was banned, although slaves from other groups were allowed. The Ottoman slave class, called a kul in Turkish, could achieve high status.
1800 CE: BRITISH SLAVERY — Modern historian Edward Said in 1978 CE criticized Britain’s ‘cultural imperialism’ – The British were leaders in the SLAVE trading for centuries. British and Rothschilds Crime Syndicate had no right to rule peoples who did not want to be ruled by foreigners with foreign values who just wanted to rob resources.
1800s CE-1908 CE: SLAVERY — Istanbul allowed the sale of black and Circassian women openly until the granting of the Constitution in 1908.
1802 CE: SLAVERY — The colonial government in Barbados had removed all discriminatory regulations from the Jews living there. A Jewish community remained on Barbados until 1831 CE, when a hurricane destroyed all of the towns on the island.
1803 CE: SLAVERY — Denmark-Norway becomes the first country in Europe to ban the African slave trade, forbidding trading in slaves and ending the importation of slaves into Danish dominions.
1804 CE: SLAVERY — Ohio ‘Black Laws’ prevent movement of Africans.
1807 CE-1808 CE: American Colonization – Britain makes international SLAVE trade criminal with SLAVE Trade Act 1807; The British Parliament makes it illegal for British ships to transport slaves and for British colonies to import them. U.S. President Thomas Jefferson signs into law the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, forbidding the importation of African slaves into the United States. The next year the British government uses Freetown, in Sierra Leone, as a base in the fight against the slave trade.
1808 CE: SLAVERY — In 1807 CE Congress bans the importation of slaves, effective January 1, 1808 CE, the earliest date allowed by the Constitution. The internal slave trade continues in states where the institution is legal.
1811 CE: SLAVERY — Africans revolt in Louisiana.
1811 CE-1867 CE: SLAVERY — Operating off the Atlantic coast of Africa, the British Navy’s Anti-Slavery Squadron liberates 160,000 slaves.
1813 CE: SLAVERY — Sweden, a nation that never authorized slave traffic, consents to ban the African slave trade.
1813 CE: SLAVERY — The Turks recapture Belgrade and sell thousands of Serb women and children into slavery
1814 CE: SLAVERY — The king of the Netherlands officially terminates Dutch participation in the African slave trade. At the Congress of Vienna, the assembled powers proclaim that the slave trade should be abolished as soon as possible but do not stipulate an actual effective date for abolition.
1816 CE: SLAVERY — Robert Finley, a US anti-slavery campaigner, founds the American Colonization Society to settle freed slaves in Africa
1816 CE: SLAVERY — The British establish Bathurst (now Banjul) at the mouth of the Gambia as a base against the slave trade
1820 CE: SLAVERY — The Missouri Compromise, admitting Maine and Missouri to the union, keeps the balance between ‘free’ and ‘slave’ states in the US senate
1820 CE: SLAVERY — The government of Spain abolishes the slave trade south of the Equator—but it continues in Cuba until 1888.
1820 CE: SLAVERY — The Missouri Compromise bans slavery north of the southern boundary of Missouri.
1820 CE-1821 CE: SLAVERY — In the Missouri Compromise, Congress admits the slave state of Missouri and the free state of Maine into the Union, and bans slavery north of the 36° 30′ line of latitude in the Louisiana Territory.
1821 CE: SLAVERY — The American Colonization Society buys the area later known as Liberia to settle freed slaves
1822 CE: SLAVERY — The first shipload of freed slaves reaches Cape Mesurado (in the region soon called Liberia) from the USA
1822 CE: SLAVERY — Denmark Vesey, an enslaved African-American carpenter who had purchased his freedom, plans a slave revolt with the intent to lay siege on Charleston, South Carolina. The plot is discovered, and Vesey and 34 co-conspirators are hanged.
1830 CE: SLAVERY — A network of undercover abolitionists in the southern states of America help slaves escape to freedom in the north
1830 CE-1824 CE: SLAVERY — Egyptian invasion of Sudan brought Sudanese slaves into Egypt. Though the “position of the domestic slave in Muslim society was in most respects better than in either classical antiquity or the nineteenth-century Americas”, due to regulation by Sharia law, the enlightened incentives and opportunities for slaves to be emancipated meant there was a strong market for new slaves and thus strong incentive to enslave and sell human beings. Appalling loss of life and hardships often resulted from the processes of acquisition and transportation of slaves to Muslim lands and this drew the attention of European opponents of slavery. Slavery, in their eyes, was “authorized and regulated by the holy law” and some masters persuaded of their own piety and benevolence would sexually exploit their concubines, without a thought of whether this constituted a violation of their humanity. There were also many pious Muslims who refused to have slaves and persuaded others to do so.
1831 CE: SLAVERY — Nat Turner leads a revolt by fellow slaves in Southampton County, Virginia, killing 59 whites and provoking more repressive legislation
1831 CE: SLAVERY — Nat Turner, an enslaved African-American preacher, leads the most significant slave uprising in American history. He and his band of followers launch a short, bloody, rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. The militia quells the rebellion, and Turner is eventually hanged. As a consequence, Virginia institutes much stricter slave laws.
1831 CE: SLAVERY — William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing the Liberator, a weekly paper that advocates the complete abolition of slavery. He becomes one of the most famous figures in the abolitionist movement.
1831 CE: SLAVERY — In Boston, William Lloyd Garrison founds the abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator , signaling a dramatic shift in the antislavery movement. In the previous decades, it had centered in the South and favored a combination of compensated emancipation and colonization of freed slaves back to Africa. In the 1830s CE, the abolitionist movement becomes the dominant voice among antislavery advocates. Abolitionists demand the immediate end to slavery, which they consider to be a moral evil, without compensation to slave owners. In 1833 CE Garrison joins Arthur and Lewis Tappan to establish the American Anti-Slavery Society, an abolitionist organization.
1831 CE: SLAVERY — Nat Turner, a literate slave who believes he is chosen to be the Moses of his people, instigates a slave revolt in Virginia. He and his followers kill 57 whites, but the revolt is unsuccessful and up to 200 slaves are killed. After an intense debate, the Virginia legislature narrowly rejects a bill to emancipate Virginia’s slaves. The widespread fear of slave revolts, compounded by the rise of abolitionism, leads legislatures across the South to increase the harshness of their slave codes. Also, expressions of anti-slavery sentiment are suppressed throughout the South through state and private censorship.
1833 CE: SLAVERY — Under the leadership of William Lloyd Garrison a society is formed in the USA calling for the immediate abolition of slavery
1833 CE: SLAVERY — The Factory Act in Britain establishes a working day in textile manufacture, provides for government inspection of working conditions, bans the employment of children under age 9, and limits the workday of children between 13 and 18 years of age to 12 hours.
1833 CE-1834 CE: SLAVERY FINALLY ABOLISHED IN BRITISH EMPIRE — Slavery is abolished throughout the British Empire. The Abolition Act abolishes slavery throughout the British Empire, including British colonies in North America. The bill emancipates slaves in all British colonies and appropriates nearly $100 million in today’s money to compensate slave owners (NOT SLAVES FOR THEIR LOST YEARS) for their losses.
1836 CE: SLAVERY — Sarah and Angelina Grimké join the abolitionist crusade, each publishing a powerful anti-slavery pamphlet in the same year
1836 CE: SLAVERY — The Portuguese ban the shipping of slaves from the coast of Angola
1839 CE: SLAVERY — Mutiny by slaves on a Spanish vessel leads two years later to a significant abolitionist victory in the Amistad case
1839 CE: SLAVERY — Cinque leads African revolt aboard the ship ‘Amistad’.
1840 CE: SLAVERY — The new British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society calls the first World Anti-Slavery Convention in London to mobilize reformers and assist post-emancipation efforts throughout the world. A group of U.S. abolitionists attends, but Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, as well as several male supporters, leave the meeting in protest when women are excluded from seating on the convention floor.
1841 CE: SLAVERY — Britain sends four naval ships up the river Niger to make anti-slavery treaties with local kings. Anti-slavery treaty with African chiefs
1841 CE: SLAVERY — Africans revolt aboard the ship ‘Creole’ and flee to Bahamas.
1842 CE: SLAVERY — In Prigg v. Pennsylvania, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 CE, stating that slave owners have a right to retrieve their “property.” In so doing, the court rules that Pennsylvania’s anti-kidnapping law is unconstitutional. At the same time, the Supreme Court declares that enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Lawis a federal responsibility in which states are not compelled to participate. Between 1842 CE and 1850 CE, nine Northern states pass new personal liberty laws which forbid state officials from cooperating in the return of alleged fugitive slaves and bar the use of state facilities for that purpose.
1845 CE: SLAVERY — Escaped slave Frederick Douglass publishes the first of three volumes of autobiography
1845 CE: SLAVERY — The British Navy assigns 36 ships to its Anti-Slavery Squadron, making it one of the largest fleets in the world.
1846 CE: SLAVERY — The Wilmot Proviso, introduced by Democratic representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, attempts to ban slavery in territory gained in the Mexican War. The proviso is blocked by Southerners, but continues to inflame the debate over slavery.
1848 CE: SLAVERY — The government of France abolishes slavery in all French colonies.
1848 CE: SLAVERY — The Wilmot Proviso is defeated in the US Senate, heightening north-south tensions on the issue of slavery
1849 CE: SLAVERY — Harriet Tubman (see Abolitionists) escapes from slavery and becomes one of the most effective and celebrated leaders of the Underground Railroad.
1850 CE: SLAVERY — The continuing debate whether territory gained in the Mexican War should be open to slavery is decided in the Compromise of 1850 CE (includes the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 CE): California is admitted as a free state, Utah and New Mexico territories are left to be decided by popular sovereignty, and the slave trade in Washington, D.C., is prohibited. It also establishes a much stricter fugitive slave law than the original, passed in 1793 CE.
1850 CE: SLAVERY — The Compromise of 1850 CE is introduced into Congress by Henry Clay as an omnibus bill designed to settle disputes arising from the conclusion of the Mexican War. It passes after Stephen Douglas divides the bill into several parts: California enters the Union as a free state; the slave trade (but not slavery) is abolished in Washington D.C.; the fugitive slave law is strengthened; and the Utah and New Mexico Territories are opened to slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty (allowing territorial voters to decide the issue without federa linterference).
1850 CE: SLAVERY — The Scottish missionary David Livingstone is profoundly shocked by what he sees of the slave trade at the heart of Africa Livingstone’s medical instruments
1850 CE: SLAVERY — The slave trade, but not slavery itself, is banned in Washington and the district of Columbia
1850 CE: SLAVERY — Brazil, historically the world’s second largest importer of slaves from Africa, finally bans the slave trade
1850 CE: SLAVERY — The US Congress passes the Compromise of 1850, designed to defuse the growing crisis over slavery
1850 CE: SLAVERY — The Fugitive Slave Act, concerned with the arrest of runaway slaves, is the most contentious part of the Compromise of 1850
1850 CE: SLAVERY — Escaped slave Harriet Tubman makes the first of many dangerous journeys back into Maryland to bring other slaves into freedom
1850 CE: SLAVERY — The government of Brazil ends the country’s participation in the slave trade and declares slave traffic to be a form of piracy.
1852 CE: SLAVERY — Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes a massively successful antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, that sells 300,000 copies in its first year
1852 CE: SLAVERY — Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, is published. The novel depicts slavery as a horrible evil, but treats white Southerners sympathetically. The villain of the piece is the cruel slave-overseer, Simon Legree, a transplanted New Englander. The book is banned in the South, while Northerners make it a bestseller.
1852 CE: SLAVERY — Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published. It becomes one of the most influential works to stir anti-slavery sentiments.
1854 CE: SLAVERY — Congress passes the Kansas-Nebraska Act, establishing the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. The legislation repeals the Missouri Compromise of 1820 CE and renews tensions between anti- and proslavery factions.
1854 CE: SLAVERY — Violence erupts in Kansas; commonly referred to as Bleeding Kansas or the Border War.
1854 CE: SLAVERY — The U.S. ministers to Britain, France, and Spain meet in Ostend, Belgium. They draft a policy recommendation to President Pierce, urging him to attempt again to purchase Cuba from Spain and, if Spain refuses, to take the island by force. When the secret proposal, called the Ostend Manifesto, is leaked to the press, it creates an uproar since Cuba would likely become another slave state.
1854 CE: SLAVERY — In an attempt to spur population growth in the western territories in advance of a transcontinental railroad, Stephen Douglas introduces a bill to establish the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. In order to gain Southern support, the bill stipulates that slavery in the territories will be decided by popular sovereignty. Thus the Kansas-Nebraska Act repeals the Missouri Compromise ban on slavery north of 36° 30′ in the lands of the Louisiana Purchase.
1854 CE: SLAVERY — An anti-slavery movement, formed in the USA to oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act, adopts a resonant name, calling itself the Republican party
1854 CE: SLAVERY — The controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act passes into law, enabling citizens of these territories to decide whether or not to allow slavery
1855 CE-1856 CE: SLAVERY — A miniature civil war, known as Bleeding Kansas, erupts in the Kansas Territory over the issue of slavery. In 1856 CE, a proslavery group attacks the free-soil town of Lawrence, destroying and stealing property. In response to the “sack of Lawrence,” radical abolitionist John Brown and his followers attack a proslavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek, killing five men. By the end of 1856 CE, nearly 200 Kansans have been killed and property worth $2 million has been damaged or destroyed.
1856 CE: SLAVERY — Senator Charles Sumner delivers a stinging speech in the U.S. Senate, “The Crime against Kansas,” in which he attacks slavery, the South, and singles out his Senate colleague, Andrew Butler of South Carolina, for criticism. In retaliation, Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina, attacks Sumner with a cane while the Massachusetts senator is seated at his desk on the floor of the Senate. The injuries he sustains cause Sumner to be absent from the Senate for four years.
1856 CE: SLAVERY — Senator Charles Sumner delivers a stinging speech in the U.S. Senate, “The Crime against Kansas,” in which he attacks slavery, the South, and singles out his Senate colleague, Andrew Butler of South Carolina, for criticism. In retaliation, Butler’s nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina, attacks Sumner with a cane while the Massachusetts senator is seated at his desk on the floor of the Senate. The injuries he sustains cause Sumner to be absent from the Senate for four years.
1856 CE: SLAVERY — Abolitionist John Brown presides over the lynching of five pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie in Kansas
1857 CE: SLAVERY — An ultra-reactionary Supreme Court judgement in the Dred Scott case heightens US tensions over slavery
1857 CE: SLAVERY — The Dred Scott Case holds that Congress does not have the right to ban slavery in states and, furthermore, that slaves are not U.S. citizens.
1857 CE: SLAVERY — The U.S. Supreme Court decides the Dred Scott case. In the majority opinion, Chief Justice Roger Taney rules that Scott is still a slave with no standing to sue; that black Americans (slave or free) are not citizens and do not have civil rights protected by the U.S. Constitution; and that neither the territorial government nor the federal government can ban slavery in the territories, thus making the (now-defunct) Northwest Ordinance and Missouri Compromise bans unconstitutional.
1857-1858 CE: SLAVERY — The rivalry in the Kansas Territory between pro- and anti-slavery factions results in the establishment of two territorial legislatures, each claiming legitimacy. The pro-slavery legislature at Lecompton drafts a constitution to make Kansas a slave state. Anti-slavery forces boycott the popular referendum on the constitution, which passes and is sent to Congress. Senator Stephen Douglas considers the Lecompton Constitution a perversion of popular sovereignty, but President James Buchanan endorses it. Congress sends the Lecompton Constitution back to Kansas for another referendum. This time, it is defeated overwhelmingly.
1858 CE: SLAVERY — Illinois Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Senate. In accepting, Lincoln delivers his “House Divided” speech in which he asserts that the nation can not endure permanently half-slave and half-free. Incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas agrees to an unprecedented series of debates held in towns across the state. Although the Democrats win control of the state legislature and reelect Douglas, Lincoln gains notoriety and becomes a contender for the 1860 CE presidential nomination.
1858 CE: SLAVERY — Abraham Lincoln comes to national prominence through his debates on slavery with Stephen Douglas, his rival for an Illinois seat in the Senate
1859 CE: SLAVERY — John Brown is captured leading a group of abolitionists to seize arms from the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry
1859 CE: SLAVERY — John Brown, the radical abolitionist and veteran of “Bleeding Kansas,” fails in his attempt to capture the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) and to use the weapons to foment a slave rebellion. Brown and his co-conspirators are hanged, becoming martyrs to the anti-slavery cause in the eyes of some abolitionists.
1859 CE: SLAVERY — John Brown and 21 followers capture the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va. (now West Virginia.), in an attempt to launch a slave revolt.
1860 CE: SLAVERY — Kentucky Senator John Crittenden proposes six amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The amendments, contained in the Crittenden Compromise, specifically addressed slavery.
1860 CE: SLAVERY — Lincoln becomes the Republican presidential candidate, benefiting from a Democratic party split on the issue of slavery
1861 CE: SLAVERY — Lagos, on the coast of Nigeria, is annexed as a British colony when the royal family prove unable or unwilling to end the slave trade
1861 CE: SLAVERY — Alexander II emancipates all Russian serfs, numbering about 50 million. His decree begins the Great Reform in Russia and earns him the title “Czar Liberator.”
1862 CE: SLAVERY — Lincoln declares in his Emancipation Proclamation that all slaves in any state opposing the Union government ‘are and henceforward shall be free’
1862 CE: SLAVERY — English travelers to Arabia saw large numbers of black slaves. The effects of slave concubinage (unmarried slave women) were apparent in the number of persons of mixed race and in the emancipation of slaves was found to be common. 1926 CE Other British in Khartoum, Sudan said the slave trade was the industry “that kept Khartoum going as a bustling town”. From Khartoum slave raiders attacked African villages to the south, looting and destroying so that “surviving inhabitants would be force to collaborate with slavers on their next excursion against neighboring villages,” and taking back captured women and young adults to sell in slave markets.
1863 CE: SLAVERY — President Abraham Lincoln issues The Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all U.S. slaves in states that had seceded from the Union, except for those in Confederate areas already controlled by the Union army.
1863 CE: SLAVERY — The government of the Netherlands takes official action to abolish slavery in all Dutch colonies.
1863 CE: SLAVERY — President Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation. (Lincoln, however, initially signed the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in 1862.)
1865 CE: SLAVERY — Congress gives final passage to, and a sufficient number of states ratify, the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to outlaw slavery. The amendment reads: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
1865 CE: SLAVERY — Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox to end the American Civil War.
1865 CE: SLAVERY — Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery in America.
1865 CE: SLAVERY — Reconstruction Era begins. It introduces a series of laws, codes, amendments, and acts (Reconstruction Era and Acts 1865 CE-1877 CE). Although African-Americans received U.S. citizenship with the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868 CE, America’s Indigenous peoples, aka Native Americans, were not U.S. citizens until the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 CE.
1865 CE: SLAVERY — Lincoln visits the Confederate capital at Richmond and is greeted by a jubilant crowd of freed slaves
1865 CE: SLAVERY — The Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution prohibits slavery or any ‘involuntary servitude’ in the USA
1865 CE-1920 CE: SLAVERY — Following the American Civil War, hundreds of thousands of African Americans are re-enslaved in an abusive manipulation of the legal system called “peonage.” Across the Deep South, African-American men and women are falsely arrested and convicted of crimes, then “leased” to coal and iron mines, brick factories, plantations, and other dangerous workplaces. The system slows down after World War I but doesn’t fully end until the 1940s CE.
1870s CE: SLAVERY — Livingstone and Stanley reported the Congo basin had a massive scale of slavery.
1873 CE: SLAVERY — The British consul in Zanzibar persuades the sultan to end the island’s notorious slave trade
1875 CE: SLAVERY — Slavery is finally made illegal in the Portuguese empire
1876 CE: SLAVERY — Scottish missionaries establish Blantyre (named after Livingstone’s birthplace) as a centre from which to fight slavery
1878 CE: SLAVERY — The Ten Years’ War ends in Cuba, with Spain promising extensive reforms including the abolition of slavery
1881 CE: SLAVERY — Booker T. Washington, freed at the end of the Civil War, heads a college in the south, in Tuskegee, Alabama, to educate former slaves
1886 CE: SLAVERY — The New York Times reported the Ottoman Empire allowed a slave trade in girls to thrive during the late 1800s, while publicly denying it. Girl sexual slaves sold in the Ottoman Empire were mainly of three ethnic groups: Circassian, Syrian, and Nubian. Circassian girls were described as fair and light-skinned and were frequently sent by Circassian leaders as gifts to the Ottomans. They were the most expensive, reaching up to 500 Turkish lira and the most popular with the Turks. The next most popular slaves were Syrian girls, with “dark eyes and hair”, and light brown skin. Their price could reach to thirty lira. They were described by the American journalist as having “good figures when young”. Throughout coastal regions in Anatolia, Syrian girls were sold. The New York Times journalist stated Nubian girls were the cheapest and least popular.
1888 CE: SLAVERY — The emperor Pedro II frees all the remaining slaves in Brazil without compensating their owners
1888 CE: SLAVERY — The Lei Aurea, or Golden Law, ends slavery in South America when the legislature of Brazil frees the country’s 725,000 slaves.
1890s CE: SLAVERY — The great slave markets of Cairo were closed down and even conservative Qurʾān interpreters continue to regard slavery as opposed to Islamic principles of justice and equality.
1897 CE: SLAVERY — Zanzibar, slavery was abolished under Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed. The rest of Africa had no direct contact with Muslim slave-traders. Zanzibar, along the coast of present-day Tanzania, had been one of the most notorious trading colonies as was west the coast of the Indian Ocean that had trading posts to supplied Muslims and others. Southeast Africa and the Indian Ocean continued as an important region for the Oriental slave trade up until the late 1800s CE.
1891 CE: SLAVERY — Singapore there was a regular trade in Chinese slaves by Muslim slave owners, with girls and women sold for concubinage.
1898 CE: SLAVERY — CUBA — It appears to remove legal discrimination and keep their Sugar Plantations the Jews instigated the Spanish-American war as after that war Jews were finally allowed to publicly worship and built a synagogue. It is possible a Jew introduced sugar cane to the Caribbean and it is likely Jews started trade routes between the islands and their mother countries while exploiting slave trading & labor to the maximum.
1900 CE-1920s CE: SLAVERY — Prior to the “reopening” of slavery by Salafi scholars like Shaykh al-Fawzan, Islamist authors declared slavery outdated, but did not clearly supporting its abolition.
1909 CE: SLAVERY — The Congo Reform Association, founded in Britain, ends forced labor in the Congo Free State, today the Democratic Republic of the Congo. After years of anti-slavery activism, the association’s Red Rubber Campaign stops the brutal system of Belgium’s King Leopold II, whose officials forced local people to produce rubber for sale in Europe and terrorized those who refused, cutting off their hands and burning down their houses.
1910 CE: SLAVERY — The International Convention for the Suppression of the White Slave Trade, signed in Paris, is the first of its kind, obligating parties to punish anyone who recruits a woman or girl under age into prostitution, even if she consents.
1913 CE: SLAVERY — After a public outcry galvanized by media reports and subsequent peoples’ petition, the British Parliament shuts down the Peruvian Amazon Company, a British entity that was torturing and exploiting indigenous Indians in Peru.
1915 CE: SLAVERY — The colonial government of Malaya officially abolishes slavery.
1918 CE: SLAVERY — The British governor of Hong Kong estimates that the majority of households that could afford it keep a young child as a household slave.
1919 CE: SLAVERY — The International Labor Organization (ILO) is founded to establish a code of global labor standards. Headquartered in Geneva, the ILO unites government, labor, and management to make recommendations concerning pay, working conditions, trade union rights, safety, woman and child labor, and social security.
1923 CE: SLAVERY — The British colonial government in Hong Kong bans the selling of little girls as domestic slaves.
1926 CE: SLAVERY — The League of Nations approves the Slavery Convention, which defines slavery as “status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised.” More than 30 governments sign the document, which charges all member nations to work to suppress all forms of slavery.
1926 CE: SLAVERY — Burma abolishes legal slavery.
1927 CE: SLAVERY — Slavery is legally abolished in Sierra Leone, a country founded as a colony by the British in the 18th century to serve as a homeland for freed slaves.
1927 CE: SLAVERY — Saudi Arabia – Treaty of Jeddah concluded between the British Government and Ibn Sa’ud (King of Nejd and the Hijaz) agreed to suppress the slave trade in Saudi Arabia.
1930 CE: SLAVERY — The U.S. Tariff Act prohibits the importation of products made with “forced or indentured labor.” (In 1997 CE, the Sanders Amendment clarified that this applies to products made with “forced or indentured child labor.”)
1936 CE: SLAVERY — The King of Saudi Arabia issues a decree that ends the importation of new slaves, regulates the conditions of existing slaves, and provides for manumission—the act of slave owners freeing their slaves—under some conditions.
1936 CE: SLAVERY — Decree said the importation of slaves into Saudi Arabia was prohibited unless it could be proved that they were slaves prior to that date.
1938 CE: SLAVERY — The Japanese military establishes “comfort stations”—actually brothels—for Japanese troops. Thousands of Korean and Chinese women are forced into sex slavery during World War II as military “comfort women.”
1939 CE-1945 CE: SLAVERY — The German Nazi government uses widespread slave labor in farming and industry. Up to nine million people are forced to work to absolute exhaustion—then they are sent to concentration camps.
1941 CE: SLAVERY — The Adoption of Children Ordinance Law in Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, requires the registration of all children who are adopted and regular inspections to prevent adopted children from working as slaves.
1948 CE: SLAVERY — The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created by the United Nations, provides: “No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.”
1949 CE: SLAVERY — The Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others prohibits any person from procuring, enticing, or leading away another person for the purposes of prostitution, even with the other person’s consent. This forms the legal basis for international protections against traffic in people still used today.
1950 CE-1989 CE: SLAVERY — International anti-slavery work slows during the Cold War, as the Soviet Block argues that slavery can only exist in capitalist societies, and the Western Block argues that all people living under communism are slaves. Both new and traditional forms of slavery in the developing world receive little attention.
1953 CE-1958 CE: Sheikhs from Qatar attending the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and included slaves in their retinues, and they did so again on another visit five years later.
1954 CE: SLAVERY — China passes the State Regulation on Reform through Labor, allowing prisoners to be used for labor in the laogai prison camps.
1956 CE: SLAVERY — The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery regulates practices involving serfdom, debt bondage, the sale of wives, and child servitude.
1962 CE: SLAVERY — Slavery is abolished in Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
1962 CE: SLAVERY — Supposedly all slavery practice and trafficking in Saudi Arabia was prohibited but was highly visible in 2005 CE.
1964 CE: SLAVERY — The sixth World Muslim Congress, the world’s oldest Muslim organization, pledges global support for all anti-slavery movements.
1969 CE-1981 CE: SLAVERY — Most Muslim states had abolished slavery although it existed in the deserts of Iraq bordering Arabia and it still flourished in Saudi Arabia and Oman. In 1970 CE Slavery was formally abolished in Yemen and Oman. The last nation to formally enact the abolition of slavery practice and slave trafficking was the Islamic Republic of Mauritania in 1981.
1973 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. General Assembly adopts the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, which outlaws a number of inhuman acts, including forced labor, committed for the purposes of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group over another.
1974 CE: SLAVERY — Mauritania’s emancipated slaves form the El Hor (“freedom”) movement to oppose slavery, which continues to this day. El Hor leaders insist that emancipation is impossible without realistic means of enforcing anti-slavery laws and giving former slaves the means of achieving economic independence. El Hor demands land reform and encourages the formation of agricultural cooperatives.
1975 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery is founded to collect information and make recommendations on slavery and slavery-like practices around the world.
1976 CE: SLAVERY — India passes a law banning bonded labor.
1980 CE: SLAVERY — Slavery is abolished for the fourth time in the Islamic republic of Mauritania, but the situation is not fundamentally changed. Although the law decrees that “slavery” no longer exists, the ban does not address how masters are to be compensated or how slaves are to gain property.
1989 CE: SLAVERY — The National Islamic Front takes over the government of Sudan and begins to arm Baggara tribesmen to fight the Dinka and Nuer tribes in the south. These new militias raid villages, capturing and enslaving inhabitants.
1989 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child promotes basic health care, education, and protection for the young from abuse, exploitation, or neglect at home, at work, and in armed conflicts. All countries ratify it except Somalia and the United States.
1990 CE: SLAVERY — After adoption by 54 countries in the 1980s, the 19th Conference of Foreign Ministers of the Organization of the Islamic Conference formally adopts the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, which states that “human beings are born free, and no one has the right to enslave, humiliate, oppress, or exploit them.”
1992 CE: SLAVERY — The Pakistan National Assembly enacts the Bonded Labor Act, which abolishes indentured servitude and the peshgi, or bonded money, system. However, the government fails to provide for the implementation and enforcement of the law’s provisions.
1992 CE: SLAVERY — Was 500th anniversary of landing of Columbus & The Second Diaspora, when the Jews were expelled from Spain and re-settled throughout the world. The colonies could provide much-desired agricultural and mineral imports and serve as a market for European goods.
1994 CE-1999 CE: SLAVERY — A Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights documented the physically and emotionally abuse of captives by the Sudanese Army and allied militia and army. The captives were “sold as slaves or forced to work under conditions amounting to slavery”. The Sudanese government responded with “fury”, accusing the author, Gaspar Biro of “harboring anti-Islam and Anti-Arab sentiments”. In 1999 CE the UN Commission sent another Special Rapporteur who “also produced a detailed examination of the question of slavery incriminating the government of Sudan.” 1980s CE slavery in Sudan market prices for a slave boy was around $90.
1995 CE: SLAVERY — The U.S. government issues the Model Business Principles, which urges all businesses to adopt and implement voluntary codes of conduct, including the avoidance of child and forced labor, as well as discrimination based on race, gender, national origin, or religious beliefs.
1995 CE: SLAVERY — Christian Solidarity International, a Swiss-based charity, begins to liberate slaves in Southern Sudan by buying them back. The policy ignites widespread controversy—many international agencies argue that buying back slaves supports the market in human beings and feeds resources to slaveholders.
1996 CE: SLAVERY — The RugMark campaign is established in Germany to ensure that hand-woven rugs are not made with slave or child labor. In 2010, RugMark changes its name to GoodWeave.
1996 CE: SLAVERY — The World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children is held.
1997 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. establishes a commission of inquiry to investigate reports of the widespread enslavement of people by the Burmese government.
1997 CE: SLAVERY — The United States bans imported goods made by child-bonded labor.
1998 CE: SLAVERY — The Global March against Child Labor is established to coordinate worldwide demonstrations against child labor and to call for a U.N. Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labor.
1999 CE: SLAVERY — Despite being barred from entering Burma, the U.N. collects sufficient evidence to publicly condemn government-sponsored slavery, including unpaid forced labor and a brutal political system built on the use of force and intimidation to deny democracy and the rule of law.
1999 CE: SLAVERY — The ILO passes the Convention Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor, which establishes widely recognized international standards protecting children against forced or indentured labor, child prostitution and pornography, their use in drug trafficking, and other harmful work.
1999 CE: SLAVERY — The first global analysis of modern slavery and its role in the global economy, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, estimates that there are 27 million people in slavery worldwide.
2000 CE: SLAVERY — Free the Slaves is formed, originally as the sister organization of Anti-Slavery International in the U.K. Today Free the Slaves is an independent organization.
2000 CE: SLAVERY — The government of Nepal bans all forms of debt bondage after a lengthy campaign by human rights organizations and freed laborers.
2000 CE: SLAVERY — The U.S. Congress passes the Trafficking Victims Protection Act to combat the trafficking of persons as a form of modern slavery. The legislation increases penalties for traffickers, provides social services for trafficking victims, and helps victims remain in the country.
2000 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. passes the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons as part of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. The trafficking protocol is the first global legally binding instrument with an internationally agreed-upon definition on trafficking in persons.
2001 CE: SLAVERY — Slavery: A Global Investigation—the first major documentary film about modern slavery—is released in the U.S. and Europe. The film tells the story of slavery and forced child labor in the cocoa and chocolate industry and wins a Peabody Award and two Emmy Awards.
2002 CE: SLAVERY — The countries of the Economic Community of Western African States agree on an action plan to confront slavery and human trafficking in the region.
2002 CE: SLAVERY — The International Cocoa Initiative is established as a joint effort of anti-slavery groups and major chocolate companies—marking the first time an entire industry has banded together to address slavery in its supply chain.
2003 CE: Shaykh Saleh Al-Fawzan, a member of Saudi Arabia’s highest religious body, the Senior Council of Clerics, issued a fatwa claiming “Slavery is a part of Islam. Slavery is part of jihad, and jihad will remain as long there is Islam.” Muslim scholars who said otherwise were called ”infidels”. The fatwa is not legal but it carries weight among many Salafi Muslims. It “is particularly disturbing and dangerous because it effectively legitimates the trafficking in and sexual exploitation of so-called domestic workers in the Gulf region and especially Saudi Arabia.” Organized criminal gangs smuggle children into Saudi Arabia where they are enslaved, sometimes mutilated, and forced to work as beggars. When caught, the children are deported as illegal aliens.
2004 CE: SLAVERY — Brazil launches the National Pact for the Eradication of Slave Labor, which combines the efforts of civil organizations, businesses, and the government to get companies to commit to the prevention and eradication of forced labor within their supply chains, as well as to be monitored and placed on a “dirty list” if the products they sell are tainted by slavery.
2004 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. appoints a Special Rapporteur (Reporter) on Human Trafficking.
2005 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. International Labor Organization’s first Global Report on Forced Labor puts the number of slaves worldwide at 12.3 million. The organization’s 2012 update increases the number to 20.9 million people.
2005 CE: Saudi Arabia is a destination for men and women from South and East Asia and East Africa trafficked for the purpose of labor exploitation, and for children from Yemen, Afghanistan, and Africa trafficking for forced begging. Hundreds of thousands of low-skilled workers from India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Kenya migrate voluntarily to Saudi Arabia; some fall into conditions of involuntary servitude, suffering from physical and sexual abuse, non-payment or delayed payment of wages, the withholding of travel documents, restrictions on their freedom of movement and non-consensual contract alterations. The Government of Saudi Arabia does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so.
2007 CE: SLAVERY — Ending Slavery: How We Free Today’s Slaves is published. Written by Free the Slaves co-founder Kevin Bales, it is the first plan for the global eradication of modern slavery, estimating the total cost of worldwide abolition at $10.8 billion over 25 years. President Bill Clinton highlights the plan at the Clinton Global Initiative. The book receives the 2011 CE University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for Ideas Improving World Order.
2008 CE: SLAVERY — The Special Court for Sierra Leone judges forced marriage “a crime against humanity” and convicts three officers in the Revolutionary United Front of forced marriage—the first convictions of their kind within an international criminal tribunal.
2008 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. International Labor Organization estimates that annual profits generated from trafficking in human beings are as high as $32 billion. In 2014 the organization increases that estimate to $150 billion in the report Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labor.
2010 CE: SLAVERY — Free the Slaves publishes Slavery, featuring images of slaves and survivors taken by humanitarian photographer Lisa Kristine and a foreword by South African Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu. Kristine receives a 2013 CE Humanitarian Photographer of the Year Award from the Lucie foundation based in large part on her work with Free the Slaves.
2011 CE: SLAVERY — California enacts the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act, requiring major manufacturing and retail firms to publicly disclose what efforts, if any, they are taking to eliminate forced labor and human trafficking from their product supply chains.
2012 CE: SLAVERY — The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission passes the Conflict Minerals Rule, requiring major publicly held corporations to disclose if their products contain certain metals mined in the eastern Congo or an adjoining country and if payment for these minerals supports armed conflict in the region. The rule was required as part of the 2010 CE Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Free the Slaves has documented that slavery is widespread at mining sites covered by this corporate disclosure requirement.
2013 CE: SLAVERY — The first Walk Free Global Slavery Index is released with country-by-country estimates for slavery worldwide. The research team estimates that 29.8 million people are enslaved today. The 2014 CE index increases that estimate to 35.8 million. The 2016 CE index increases that estimate to 45.8 million.
2014 CE: SLAVERY — So-called Islamic terrorist groups in the Middle East including ISIS and ISIL and Northern Nigeria (Boko Haram) justified the taking of slaves in war and actually enslaved women and girls (around 2,000 sold as sexual slaves). Abubakar Shekau, the leader of the Nigerian extremist group Boko Haram said in an interview, “I shall capture people and make them slaves”. They claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women whom they consider to be from a heretical sect that are idol worshipers and their enslavement was part of the old shariah practice of spoils of war.
2014 CE: SLAVERY — Boko Haram’s Quranic justification of kidnapping and enslaving people and ISIL’s used religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women. 126 Islamic scholars from around the Muslim world signed an open letter to the Islamic State’s leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, rejecting his group’s interpretations of the Qur’an to justify its instituting of slavery under its rule in contravention of the anti-slavery consensus of the Islamic community.
2015 CE: SLAVERY — Free the Slaves marks its 15th birthday by announcing that the organization has reached a historic benchmark—liberating more than 10,000 people from slavery.
2015 CE: SLAVERY — The U.N. adopts 17 Sustainable Development Goals, with 169 targets that include an end to slavery: “Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labor, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labor, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 CE end child labor in all its forms.”
2017 CE: SLAVERY — A research consortium including the U.N. International Labor Organization, the group Walk Free, and the U.N. International Organization for Migration release a combined global study indicating that 40 million people are trapped in modern forms of slavery worldwide: 50 percent in forced labor in agriculture, manufacturing, construction, mining, fishing and other physical-labor industries; 12.5 percent in sex slavery, and 37.5 percent in forced marriage slavery.
2017 CE-Today: After the British-French Rothschilds Crime Syndicate wiped out Libya and Gaddafi, Libya became a major exit point for African migrants heading to Europe. International Organization for Migration (IOM) reported that many of the migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa heading to Europe are sold as slaves after being detained by people smugglers or militia groups. African countries south of Libya were targeted for slave trading and transferred to Libyan slave markets instead. According to the victims, the price is higher for migrants with skills like painting and tiling. Slaves are often ransomed to their families and in the meantime until ransom can be paid tortured, forced to work, sometimes to death and eventually executed or left to starve if they can’t pay for too long. Women are often raped and used as sex slaves and sold to brothels and private Libyan clients. Many child migrants also suffer from abuse and child rape in Libya. Hundreds of African migrants were forced into slavery by human smugglers who were themselves facilitating their arrival in the country. Most of the migrants are from Nigeria, Senegal and Gambia. They however end up in cramped warehouses due to the crackdown by the Libyan Coast Guard, where they are held until they are ransomed or are sold for labor. Libyan authorities of the Government of National Accord announced that they had opened up an investigation into the auctions. A human trafficker told Al-Jazeera that hundreds of the migrants are bought and sold across the country every week.