Science & Technology Solves Human Problems

CREATIVE HUMAN INVENTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES over millennium have given us the PRODUCTS HUMANS NEED THAT ARE IDEAL FOR HUMAN LIFE. INNOVATIONS are at the heart of improving human lives on earth.


Productivity improving technologies to enhance the QUALITY OF HUMAN LIFE!

Click for Source Article on HUMAN INNOVATIONS OF PAST

INITIALLY The BASIC UNIT OF ANCIENT POWER WAS HUMAN MUSCLE. Human labor and later animal labor was the main form of energy — This made slavery very popular and common in early civilizations. The quality of life for MOST PEOPLE was low and obviously even lower for slaves.

INNOVATION: 2 Million BCE First production of stone tools

INNOVATION: 1 million years ago Fire was used by people in Africa for cooking (800,000 to a million years ago). People most likely used sparks from two rocks being hit together.

INNOVATION: 10000 BCE or earlier working animals may predate agriculture, with dogs used by our hunter-gatherer ancestors to help find dinner.

INNOVATION: 8000 BCE Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest domestication of animals occurred in western Asia as humans increasingly turned to farming for their food supply. Goats and sheep were tamed and raised for their meat, milk and hides and wool. 6,000 BCE, humans had started to tame the wild ox, or aurochs, an animal that lived throughout much of Asia and Europe. Domesticated cattle proved to be much more versatile than goats or sheep: in addition to providing food, milk, and hides, cattle could be harnessed to till fields using early versions of the plow. The muscle power of cattle, and later donkeys and horses, dramatically increased the efficiency of farming, allowing for greater crop yields that supported larger populations and ultimately contributed to the rise of cities

INNOVATION: 6500 BCE Old World tin & lead beads were found in today’s Turkey. Tin & lead were smelted by placing the ores in a wood fire, leaving the possibility that the discovery may have occurred by accident. Lead was too soft for tools of weapons but was used extensively in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome for piping and storage of water. It was also used as a mortar in stone buildings.

INNOVATION: 5500 BCE-3200 BCE Cooper was smelted but regular fires were not hot enough so the first smelting of copper may have been achieved in pottery kilns. 5500 BCE The earliest current evidence of copper smelting in Serbia but it was not wide-spread. The first copper/arsenic bronzes date from 4200 BC from Asia Minor. Copper–tin bronzes, harder and more durable, were developed around 3200 BC, also in Asia Minor.

INNOVATION: 4000 BCE-1760 AD was prior to the Industrial Revolution. 500 AD-900 AD First windmills were developed to automate the tasks of grain-grinding and water-pumping developed in Persia. Wind power for grain grinding was first documented used a grinding stone affixed to the same vertical shaft as the wind mill. The mill machinery was commonly enclosed in a building to block the incoming wind on the ground grain. Windmills were also developed and used in China possibly 2000 years ago. The earliest actual documentation of a Chinese windmill was in 1219 A.D. used for water pumping and grain grinding. The Persian windmills used vertical sails made of bundles of reeds or wood which were attached to the central vertical shaft. Just before the Industrial revolution water power was applied to bellows for iron smelting in Europe, but were used in ancient China much earlier.

INNOVATION: 4000 BCE Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists found remains of three irrigation canals. These canals are the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. 3000 BCE-2000 BCE Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia and largely depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers. Irrigation was practiced in the Mesopotamian plain to water crops using a matrix of small channels dug in the fields. Ancient Egyptians practiced Basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots which had been surrounded by dykes. The flood water was held until the fertile sediment had settled before the surplus was returned to the normal watercourse. 1800 BCE Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III used a natural lake as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons. The lake swelled annually from flooding of the Nile. Terrace irrigation was used in pre-Columbian America, early Syria, India, and China. 3000 BCE Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan and North India, including the reservoirs at Girnar. Large scale agriculture was practiced and an extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation.

INNOVATION: 3500 BCE The first wheels were created to serve as potter’s wheels in Mesopotamia. And 3200 BCE someone figured out to use them for chariots and wheelbarrows.

INNOVATION: 3500 BCE Sailboats and sailing ships used wind power. The Babylonian emperor Hammurabi planned to use wind power for his ambitious irrigation project in the 1700 BCE. The windwheel around 30 AD by an engineer in Egypt is the earliest known instance of using a wind-driven wheel to power a machine. Another early example of a wind-driven wheel was the prayer wheel, which has been used in ancient India, Tibet, and China since the 300 AD.

INNOVATION: 3000 BCE-2300 BCE Bronze was made in China and toward the end of this period they are using bronze to make tools and weapons. In Europe few tools were made initially, but by 1200 BCE bronze replaced all stone tools. Ancient bronze was made of roughly 20% tin, 80% copper, with traces of silver and later 92% cooper for tougher bronze. The first such bronzes were probably a lucky accident from tin contamination of copper ores.

INNOVATION: 2000 BCE We know that tin was being mined on purpose for the production of bronze. This is amazing, given that tin is a semi-rare metal, and even a rich cassiterite ore only has 5% tin. Also, it takes special skills (or special instruments) to find it and to locate the richer lodes. Whatever steps were taken to learn about tin, these were fully understood by 2000 BC. Copper and bronze manufacturing for tools and weapons had a significant impact on the history of the Old World. Bronze was used for swords, daggers, battle axes, and spear and arrow points, as well as protective gear such as shields, helmets, metal shin guards, other body armor, household utensils, chisels, saws, nails, blade shears, knives, sewing needles, pins, jugs, cooking pots/cauldrons, mirrors, horse harnesses, and much more.

INNOVATION: 1100 BCE Iron technology originated in the Near East, perhaps in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). 1100 BCE–750 BCE Ancient Egypt began iron working and 1200 BCE possibly iron smelting and working was used in West Africa. A very early instances of carbon steel was found produced around the time of Christ in northwest Tanzania using complex preheating principles. 930 BCE in Jordan early iron smelting was used but at low heat to produce a spongy mass of iron called a bloom, which then has to be consolidated with a hammer to produce wrought iron.

INNOVATION: 400 BCE in Egypt Paddle-driven water-lifting wheels were used. The Egyptians are credited with inventing the water wheel with attached pots, a water wheel with water compartments and a bucket chain, which ran over a pulley with buckets attached to it. The invention of the compartmentalized water wheel occurred in ancient Egypt in a rural area not close to major cities and then spread to other parts of North Africa. A papyrus dating to the 200 BCE mentions a water wheel used for irrigation. In Roman times mechanical devices included water wheels and windmills showed up and were mostly for grinding grain into flour. Windmill power was also adapted to power trip hammers for pounding rags into pulp for making paper and for crushing ore. Wind and water power were also used in sawmills. 1840s AD Americans used stream and river water power with a water wheel to grind grain or fill an irrigation ditch with water or operate a saw mill and later in manufacturing.

INNOVATION: 100 BCE China developed the seed drill which is a mechanical device for spacing and planting seed at the appropriate depth. Saving seed was extremely important at a time when yields were measured in terms of seeds harvested per seed planted, which was typically between 3 and 5 per plant. The seed drill also saved planting labor. Most importantly, the seed drill meant crops were grown in rows, which reduced competition of plants and increase yields & enabled cultivation for weed control. It was reinvented in INNOVATION: 80-1900s Cranes are an ancient Egyptian & Roman technology but became widespread following the Industrial Revolution. As early as 500 BCE primative forms of cranes were found. 1830s Industrial cranes were used to handle heavy machinery at foundries. 1890s Hydraulic powered cranes became widely used at British ports. Some cities, such as London, had public utility hydraulic service networks to power cranes. 1890s Steam cranes were also used, but soon replaced by electric cranes, especially for overhead needs and introduce into factories. 1900 caterpillar treads were also developed to move materials and goods. Rail and trolleys moved the hoist to any position inside the crane frame. Mobile gas & diesel powered cranes travel on wheels were widely used in construction, mining, excavation handling bulk materials.

INNOVATION: 200 AD China was making cast iron was known, but never reached Europe until 1300s and Britain in 1400s. Cast iron was useful for casting into pots and other implements, but was too brittle for making most tools. Cast iron had a lower melting temperature than wrought iron and was much easier to make with primitive technology. Wrought iron was the material used for making many hardware items, tools and other implements. 1800 an inexpensive process for making good quality wrought iron became widespread but was extremely labor intensive. 1870s The Bessemer and open-hearth processes became the favored methods. Production of steel and other metals was hampered by the difficulty in producing sufficiently high temperatures for melting so thermodynamic principles helped recapture heat lost up the flue and used hot blasts as found in blast furnaces (begun in 1829). By 1970 the most efficient blast furnaces were three times bore efficient at producing a ton of pig iron.

INNOVATION: 500-1800 Spinning wheel for spinning thread or yarn first used in India. Spinning machinery, such as the spinning-jenny and spinning frame, displaced the spinning wheel during the Industrial Revolution. The spinning wheel was a medieval invention that increased thread making productivity by a factor greater than ten. Spinning thread had been a limiting factor in cloth making requiring 10 spinners using the spinning wheel to supply one weaver. The spinning-jenny could spin eight threads at once. In 1768 water power was used for spinning on thread at a time (water frame), but many water frames could operate in same building at same time and were easy to operate. 1779 The spinning mule allowed a large number of threads to be spun by a single machine using water power.
INNOVATION: 1300-1656 First mechanical clocks were invented in Europe and became the standard timekeeping device until the pendulum clock was invented in 1656. The technology of building mills and mechanical clocks was important to the development of the machines of the Industrial Revolution.

INNOVATION: 850 AUTOMATED CONTROL — The Persian Banū Mūsā brothers described a number of automatic controls for control of fluid levels and described a feedback controller.

1500s Europe based on verbal descriptions and crude drawings brought back from China, but the first ones were expensive and unreliable. 1850s the First Reliable seed drills appeared.

INNOVATION: 1556 Mining carts to roll loads of coal out of the mine
invented, and in 1910 mine carts became almost trains of mine carts. Minecarts

INNOVATION: 1589 Preceding the Industrial Revolution the loom for weaving cloth was invented. And during the Industrial Revolution the flying shuttle, a simple device doubled the productivity of weaving.

INNOVATION: 1600s-1700s Before public water was supplied to households it was necessary for someone annually to haul up to 10,000 gallons of water to the average household. 1609-1613 An ambitious engineering project to bring fresh water from Hertfordshire to London was undertaken with construction of the New River & The New River Company became one of the largest private water companies of the time. By 1700s a rapidly growing population fueled a boom in the establishment of private water supply networks in London with extensive ponds using water from the Thames. 1775 The S-bend pipe was invented and in 1880 was improved with the U-bend trap pipe. 1845 The first screw-down water tap was patented by a brass foundry.

INNOVATION: 1600-1800s America Before the factory system much production took place in the household, such as spinning and weaving, and was for household consumption. This was partly due to the lack of transportation infrastructures, especially in America. Industrialized mass production and improved transportation changed all that.

INNOVATION: 1700s Improved roads speed up transportation and reduced danger and repairs. Roads were made with layered gravel to increase speed and solve water problems — crowned to shed water and added drainage ditches along the sides. They reduced resistance for wagon wheels and horses hooves as feet did not sink in the mud. 1810-1820s Plank roads came into use but were costly and so were soon overtaken by railroads as the major transportation infrastructure along with River & Ocean shipping. Sailing ships covered 3000 miles cost same as 30 miles by wagon travel. 1761 first canals and canal barges were built to carry heavy loads long distances. By 1830s railroads became favored transport method especially over land where canals were not available. Wagon costs were 25+ Times more expensive versus railroads.

INNOVATION: 1711 Newcomen steam engine (initially only 1% efficient) was installed for pumping water from a mine, a job that typically was done by large teams of horses, of which some mines used as many as 500. Horses convert feed to work at an efficiency of about 5%. First Newcomen steam engine was about 0.5% efficient and was improved to slightly over 1% and Watt’s made improvements that increased thermal efficiency to 2%.

INNOVATION: 1713 AUTOMATED CONTROL became critical when the Steam Engine opened up advances in grain mills, furnaces, windmills, and boilers all needing automatic temperature & pressure control systems for safety. Prior to that, in 1691 pressure regulators had been developed and in 1700 float regulators & speed control devices had been invented. These were all added to automatically control steam engines. 1850s Mathematics was first used to analyze the stability of feedback control systems. Automation means automatic control of a process/system run with a minimum of operator intervention & used mechanical methods, electrical relay, and feedback control using computers. Common applications of automation are for controlling temperature, flow, pressure, speed, and in more recent times as part of production and air traffic control system. The concept of the automated feedback loop to control the dynamic behavior of a system requires reading the current state with censors and then a device to adjust the process to meet the desired goal (speed, pressure or whatever is required) done automatically and repeatedly at some interval (even nanoseconds today). A typical example would be to control the opening of a valve to hold a liquid level in a tank. Process control is a widely used form of automation. The centrifugal governor used for adjusting the mill stones was copied by James Watt for controlling speed of steam engines in response to changes in heat load to the boiler. It took much development work to achieve the degree of steadiness necessary to operate textile machinery. 1950s Mathematical analysis of control theory was first developed and integrated with computers to reduce production cost and improve quality and safety. Today we see cruise control on a cars and even self-driving cars. Process control is critical for all robotics used in manufacturing and oil refineries, steam plants generating electricity or paper mills to be run with a minimum of manpower. Traffic signal lights can be extremely sophisticated control systems or simple timers to improve the flow of traffic. Today the computer with its multi-processing has replaced individual controllers.

INNOVATION: 1740s In England’s Canal Age all boats and barges were towed by horse, mule, hinny, pony or sometimes a pair of donkeys. Teams of Humans pulled canal boats in America in some areas into 1890s.

INNOVATION: 1750s WATER WHEEL John Smeaton, the “father of civil engineering” = Giant improvement of water wheel efficiency using scientific logic = Started Powering the Industrial Revolution = POWER NEEDED FOR MANUFACTURING.

INNOVATION: 1777 The circular saw was developed and 1794 the nail making and cutting machines were invented. 1832 Steam engines were used for cutting lumber like 2” X 4” and they were then nailed together in what became known as balloon framing and this began the decline of the ancient method of timber frame construction with wooden joinery.

INNOVATION: 1785 Conveyors were used in 1785 in Oliver Evans’s automatic flour mill built. 1900s various types of conveyors (belt, slat, bucket, screw or auger), overhead cranes and industrial trucks began being used for handling materials and goods in various stages of production in factories for mass production.

INNOVATION: 1786-1880s Threshing machines to separate grain from (a plant). Before the machine it was done by hand beating say a hand-held batch of say harvested wheat on a flat surface to catch the grain falling out it was extremely labor intensive and time-consuming. 1786 the First horse draw threshing machine was invented a Scottish engineer and was improved by 1794. By 1860 25% of farm labor was eliminated by the threshing machines. In Europe, many of the displaced workers were driven to the brink of starvation. 1880 the reaper and threshing machine were combined into the combine harvester pulled by large teams of horses or mules. 1881 the first Steam Engine Threshing machines was invented to replace horses pulling a heavy machine. Today both threshing and reaping are done with a combined harvester pulled by a powerful tractor with air conditioning in the enclosed cab.

INNOVATION: 1790s Industrial Revolution began in America when new manufacturing technologies from Britain entered the United States and founded the first U.S. cotton mill in Beverly, Massachusetts. Industrial Revolution dramatically HURT THE FEELINGS OF FULL CREATIVE HUMAN SATISFACTION: Division of labor was practiced in antiquity but became increasingly specialized during the Industrial Revolution, so that instead of a shoemaker cutting out leather as part of the operation of making a shoe, a worker would do nothing but cut out leather. So mundane robotic steps replaced creative labor intensive making of shoes or clothing. These were the methods Adam Smith pushed that made $Millionaires and $Billionaires. Working at home nearly disappeared except on farms as spinning, weaving, & shoe making was produced in factories.

INNOVATION: 1790 and before a worker could harvest 1/4 acre per day with a scythe. 1800s the grain cradle with multiple cuts was introduced, significantly increasing the productivity of hand labor. 1834 Cyrus McCormick’s horse pulled reapers freed up five men for military service in the U.S. Civil War. 1890 two men and two horses could cut, rake and bind 20 acres of wheat per day or 40 times more than in 1790.

INNOVATION: 1790s in America the industrial revolution began small and most specialized production took place in workshops, which were typically located in the rear or upper level of the same building where the finished goods were sold. These workshops used tools and sometimes simple machinery, which was usually hand or animal powered. The master craftsman, foreman or merchant capitalist supervised the work and maintained quality. Workshops grew in size but were displaced by the factory system in the early 1800s. Under the factory system capitalists hired workers and provided the buildings, machinery and supplies and handled the sale of the finished products so again robbing the individual of the creative process and making a few people extremely wealthy.

INNOVATION: 1791 Invention of the Leblanc process made Low cost Sodium compounds: carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide are important industrial chemicals used in important products like making glass and soap. 1860s The Leblanc process was replaced by the Solvay process using widespread availability of inexpensive electricity & electro-chemical processes.

INNOVATION: 1794 As manufacturing improved consumer demand for cotton clothing increased. Cloth production increased dramatically with the invention of the cotton gin in 1794 that greatly reduced need for slave labor. With a cotton gin in one day a man could remove seed from as much upland cotton as would have previously taken a picker two months to process at one pound per day using a manual roller gin.

INNOVATION: 1800-1900 Over 100 years the output per man hour for wheat production rose 500% and for corn about 250%. It continued to today with farm machinery and higher crop yields reducing the labor to produce 100 bushels of corn from 35 to 40 hours in 1900 to 2 hours 45 minutes in 1999. 1915 Conversion to internal combustion power for agricultural began and the horse population began to decline in the 1920s freeing up much land previously used for supporting draft animals. The peak years for tractor sales in the U.S. were the 1950s as a large surge in horsepower of farm machinery grew.

INNOVATION: 1801 Paper was made one sheet at a time by hand until development of the Fourdrinier paper machine which made a continuous sheet. Paper making was severely limited by the supply of cotton and linen rags from the time of the invention of the printing press.

INNOVATION: 1803 Large productivity increases by special purpose machines in Portsmouth Block Mills that made concrete blocks. With these machines 10 men could produce as many blocks as 110 skilled craftsmen of the past.

INNOVATIONS: 1805 Reduce Friction in Industrial process & Reduce 50+% of Energy Consumption per unit of production. Lubrication & Smoother roadways & better bearings were some of the keys. Reducing friction was one of the major reasons for the success of railroads compared to wagons. This was demonstrated on an iron plate covered wooden tramway in 1805 at Croydon, U.K.

INNOVATION: 1807 Steamboats were used to replace human and animal barge pullers. The first successful steamboat was the Clermont, which was built by American inventor Robert Fulton in 1807. His cost and therefore unsuccessful steamboats had been developed 30 years earlier.

INNOVATION: 1820s HYDRO POWER: Benoît Fourneyron’s developed highly efficient dam turbines to replaced waterwheels with 95% efficiency like we have in large hydro-power Dams and other installations.

INNOVATION: 1828 Recovery of heat for industrial processes was first used widely for blast furnaces to make pig iron. Later to make glass and steel in open-hearth furnace. Today heat is reused in many basic industries such as chemicals, oil refining and pulp and paper, using a variety of methods such as heat exchangers in many processes.

INNOVATION: 1830s after mechanization in the textile industry the shoe industry was mechanized. And sewing machines were invented and improved during the early 19th century and produced in large numbers by the 1870s. Sewing machines increased productivity by more than 500% and were modified for sewing in shoe making.

INNOVATION: 1831–1832 Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic generators, later called Faraday’s law using varying magnetic flux in a magnetic field. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage.

INNOVATION: 1832 Improved the magneto by using a wire wound horseshoe, with the extra coils of conductor generating more current, but it was AC.

INNOVATION: 1838-1960s Basic Hydraulic jack was invented and improved in 1851 for portability. By 1960s they could lift 2-1/2 ton and are used in warehouses and in retail stores.

INNOVATION: 1838-1840 Telegraph invented using a magneto that he developed to power the telegraph and was an important improvement in electrical generation by using a battery-powered electromagnet in place of a permanent magnet. 1866 The self-excited magnetic field dynamo did away with the battery to power electromagnets.

INNOVATION: 1840s Unloading cotton from ships used Hydraulic cranes in the U.K., but were little used in the U.S. 1880s Steam powered conveyors and cranes were used in the U.S. 1900s electric operated cranes and motorized mobile loaders such as forklifts were used. Today non-bulk freight is. containerized and lifted by giant cranes into place.

INNOVATION: 1842-1844 Britain passed laws improved working conditions in mines using technology

INNOVATION: 1843-1929 First telegraph appeared at the beginning of the railroad era and railroads typically installed telegraph lines along their routes for communicating with the trains. Teleprinters appeared in 1910 and had replaced between 80 and 90% of Morse code operators by 1929. It is estimated that one teletypist replaced 15 Morse code operators.

INNOVATION: 1844 Charles Goodyear (1800-1860), self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer developed vulcanized rubber, for which he received a patent. Vulcanized rubber made the pneumatic tire possible, which in turn enabled the development of on and off-road vehicles as we know them.

INNOVATION: 1850s Large mining machines, such as steam shovels, appeared, but were restricted to rails until the widespread introduction of pneumatic tires in the 1890s. Until then much mining work was mostly done with pneumatic drills, jack hammers, picks and shovels. 1890-1934 Coal seam was used for 75% of coal production by 1934. But coal loading was still being done manually with shovels, but mechanical pick up and loading machines were coming into use. 1949-1969 coal boring machines improved productivity of sub-surface coal mining by a factor of three. Today Mountain Top mining that strips the land has dramatically reduced labor needs as massive earth moving equipment does most of the work, but at extreme environmental costs.

INNOVATION: 1850s STEAM ENGINE Steam power overtook water power using wood and then mostly coal. INNOVATION: Steam power efficiency increased from 0.5% to 40% using today’s steam turbines used today to produce most conventional electricity.

INNOVATION: 1850s Hydraulic power came into use in for cranes at ports (Bessemer process). London and a few other cities had hydraulic (pneumatic) utilities that provided pressurized water for industrial use over a wide area. This type of power was used for early tunneling as well as industry.

INNOVATION: 1850s First sewer systems in USA were built in Chicago and Brooklyn. 1890s United States installed first sewage treatment plant using chemical precipitation in Worcester, Massachusetts & it was discovered that bad odor could be reduced by introducing oxygen into the decomposing sewage leading to biological aerobic and anaerobic treatments. Also cities began to treat sewage discharge by adding chemical treatment and a sedimentation systems to their sewers. During the half-century around 1900, these public health interventions succeeded in drastically reducing the incidence of water-borne diseases among the urban population, and were an important cause in the increases of life expectancy experienced at the time.

INNOVATION: 1850 Paper made using wood pulp in response to a shortage of rags. 1874 The sulfite process for making wood pulp started operation in Sweden. Paper made from sulfite pulp had superior strength properties than the previously used ground wood pulp. 1930s The kraft (Swedish for strong) pulping process was commercialized. Pulping chemicals are recovered and internally recycled in the kraft process, also saving energy and reducing pollution. Kraft paperboard is the material that the outer layers of corrugated boxes are made of. Until Kraft corrugated boxes were available, packaging consisted of poor quality paper and paperboard boxes along with wood boxes and crates. Corrugated boxes require much less labor to manufacture than wooden boxes and offer good protection to their contents. Shipping containers reduce the need for packaging.

INNOVATION: 1855 The Bessemer and open-hearth processes made Steel with much higher strength than wrought iron and allowed long-span bridges, high-rise buildings, automobiles and other items. Steel also made superior threaded fasteners (screws, nuts, bolts), nails, wire and other hardware items. Steel rails lasted over 10 times longer than wrought iron rails. These processes greatly reduced the cost of steel. And the Gilchirst-Thomas “basic” process reduced production costs by 90% compared to 1850s processes. Today a variety of alloy steels are available that have superior properties for special applications like automobiles, pipelines and drill bits. High speed or tool steels, whose development began in the late 19th century, allowed machine tools to cut steel at much higher speeds. High speed steel and even harder materials were an essential component of mass production of automobiles. Some of the most important specialty materials are steam turbine and gas turbine blades, which have to withstand extreme mechanical stress and high temperatures. By 1913, 80% of steel was being made from molten pig iron directly from the blast furnace, eliminating the step of casting the “pigs” (ingots) and remelting. After 1950 continuous casting contributed to productivity of converting steel to structural shapes by eliminating the intermittent step of making slabs or billets. Between 1920 and 2000 labor requirements in the steel industry decreased by a factor of 1,000, from more than 3 worker-hours per tonne to just 0.003.

INNOVATION: 1860s-1890 Barges were pulled by Humans in teams down or up rivers. These human teams lasted to 1890s in some areas of the world with thousands of workers pulled barges. Push on the Barge with poles and manual pulling using overhanging tree branches.

INNOVATION: 1860s-1890s Cement is the binder for concrete, which is one of the most widely used construction materials today because of its low-cost, versatility and durability. Portland cement, which was invented 1824-5, is made by calcining limestone and other naturally occurring minerals in a kiln. 1890s Great advance was the perfection of rotary cement kilns, the method still being used today. Reinforced concrete, which is suitable for structures, began being used in the early 20th century.

INNOVATION: 1864 Pasteurization, invented by Louis Pasteur, kills harmful bacteria that tend to grow in dairy products, especially in the absence of refrigeration. Pasteurization of milk allowed it to be stored short-term & shipped by railroad.

INNOVATION: 1867 Dynamite blend of nitroglycerin and diatomaceous earth was patented by Alfred Nobel and increased productivity of mining, tunneling, road building, construction and demolition and made projects such as the Panama Canal possible.

INNOVATION: 1868-1900 Numerous new hard materials were developed for cutting edges such as in machining, like Mushet steel, a forerunner of High speed steel, which was developed by a team led by Fredrick Winslow Taylor at Bethlehem Steel Company around 1900. High speed steel held its hardness even when it became red-hot. It was followed by a number of modern alloys.

INNOVATION: 1870 Fossil fuel (mostly coal) energy first exceeded all animal and water power to replace physical work.

INNOVATION: 1870 Steam Railroads descended into mine to pull out loads of coal

INNOVATION: 1870s Old but improved multi-sage steam engines though still very inefficient were able to power ships and locomotives that made traveling a pleasure compared to horse and buggy or covered wagon. They also opened up isolated locations for settlement. Of course, ships and trains could carry massive loads to increase distribution of goods and raw materials and were ideal for International trade — That boomed. These improvements in steam engine efficiency caused a large increase in the number of steam engines and the amount of coal used.

INNOVATION: 1870s First practical generator, the Gramme machine was sold and was improved to allow better air cooling and added compound winding, which gave more stable voltage with load, improved operating characteristics of generators. 1890s generators had moved from a few percent of mechanical energy to electricity to 90% efficiencies.

INNOVATION: 1870s-1880s DC power systems dominated, but were “Small” systems sold to factories and small downtown areas but did not reach 95% of residents. Electric lighting was a luxury found only in hotels and other businesses as well as in the mansions of people like George Westinghouse and J.P. Morgan.

INNOVATION: 1875-1900 Improved steam engines and inexpensive transportation provided by railroads, caused the machinery industry to become the largest profit sector in the U. S. economy by 1875-1900. Machine tools could cut, grind and shape metal parts making precision parts feasible with interchangeable parts. 1800-1840 Machine tools for screw-making, milling, metalwork were developed. Around 1900 the combination of small electric motors, specialty steels and new cutting and grinding materials allowed machine tools to mass-produce steel parts. 1908 Production of the Ford Model T required 32,000 machine tools.

INNOVATION: 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. 1892 Telephone calls were handled by operators using switchboards until the automatic switchboard was introduced. 1920s Early use of telephones was primarily for business as monthly service cost was 33% of average worker’s earnings.

INNOVATION: 1880s Pipelines were used to transport fluids through Iron and steel pipelines. They became a major infrastructure in 20th century with advent of Centrifugal pumps and centrifugal compressors for pumping liquids and natural gas.

INNOVATION: 1880s -1986 Piggybacking of trailers or entire trucks on rail cars saves loading and unloading time and costs. 1880s Wagons were carried on rail cars with horses in separate cars. 1956 Trailers began being carried on rail cars in the U.S. Piggyback was 1% of freight in 1958, rising to 15% in 1986.

INNOVATION: 1890-1960 Massive improvements in transportation of goods and raw materials by a factor of 10+ times — Same in improvements in mining.

INNOVATION: 1890s Electric street railways (trams, trolleys or streetcars) were in the final phase of railroad building lasting into 1920s but used by some areas into 1940s.

INNOVATION: 1890s Steam power replace human and animal barge pullers.

INNOVATION: 1890s Most coal and other minerals were mined with picks and shovels and crops were harvested and grain threshed using animal power or by hand.

INNOVATION: 1890s Heavy loads like 382 pound bales of cotton were handled on hand trucks until the early 1910s and in some older mines humans pulling coal sleds in a narrow tub along a mine gallery for long distances.

INNOVATION: 1890s Steam power was applied to grain threshing using stream engines to supply power. These steam engines could move around on wheels under their own power, called road engines, and supply temporary power to stationary farm equipment such as threshing machines. This idea inspired Henry Ford as a boy to build automobiles.

INNOVATION: 1890s Electrification with AC Power provided the solution to distance transmission. AC also provided a solution to interconnect generation sites. The development of the 3-phase AC power system proved the effectiveness of the system and electrification of entire cities and regions began. Electrification enabled economic growth and quality of life as humans did not have to shut down after sunset allowing for more self-learning, reading, and enjoyment. Electricity consumption and economic growth are strongly correlated. Per capita electric consumption correlates almost perfectly with economic development.

INNOVATION: 1890s Factory electrification replaced cumbersome and inefficient power line shafts used in days of steam engines. Line shafts limited factory arrangement and suffered from high power losses. Industrial process have undergone numerous minor improvements which collectively made significant reductions in energy consumption per unit of production.

INNOVATION: 1890s Electrification was the first technology to enable long distance transmission of power with minimal power losses and dramatically increased the productivity of factories over inefficient stream power. Electric motors greatly reduced the capital cost of power compared to steam engines.

INNOVATION: 1890s and before Barges were pulled by Humans in teams down or up rivers. These human teams lasted to 1890s in some areas of the world with thousands of workers pulling barges. Also, Barges were Pushed with poles and manual pulling using overhanging tree branches. After 1890s Horses were used to pull Barges.

INNOVATION: 1890s Most coal and other minerals were mined with picks and shovels and crops were harvested and grain threshed using animal power or by hand.

INNOVATION: 1890s Heavy loads like 382 pound bales of cotton were handled on hand trucks until the early 1910s and in some older mines humans pulling coal sleds in a narrow tub along a mine gallery for long distances.

INNOVATION: 1890s Steam shovels — 1890s steam shovels came into use but they were extremely inefficient doing less than a human in a day at 3.5 to 5 cu, meters. Today’s large electric shovels have buckets that can hold 168 cubic meters and consume the power of a city of 100,000.

INNOVATION: 1890-1960 Massive improvements in transportation of goods and raw materials by a factor of 10+ times — Same in improvements in mining.

INNOVATION: 1890s to 1920s Continuous production is a method by which a process operates without interruption for long periods, perhaps even years. Continuous production began with blast furnaces in ancient times and became popular with mechanized processes following the invention of the Fourdrinier (a specially woven plastic fabric mesh conveyor belt) paper machine during the Industrial Revolution. The belt continuously rolls 24/7. It was used in chemical and petroleum refining industries 1890s to 1920s and was later applied to direct strip casting of steel & other metals. Early steam engines did not supply constant power for continuous operation of cotton-spinning & rolling mills. Advances in steam engines & use of scientific control theory led to more constant engine speeds, which made steam power useful for sensitive tasks such as cotton-spinning. Eventually, AC motors, which run at constant speed even with load variations, were applied to continuous processes.

INNOVATION: 1890s Natural gas began being supplied to households. 1920s Household appliances were electrified with electric ranges, toasters, refrigerators and washing machines. This reduced meal preparation, clean up, laundry and cleaning from 58 hours/week in 1900 to 18 hours/week by 1975. Less time spent on housework allowed time for women to enter the labor force.

INNOVATION: 1890s-1940s Early IBM tabulating machines for accounts receivable, payroll and billing was developed. They sorted coded punch cards with sorting machines to tabulate or calculate totals and sub-totals, the holes in the cards allowing electrical contact to increment electronic counters. These machines for record keeping were widely used before the introduction of computers. 1890 U.S. census was tabulated in less than a year with great labor savings compared to the estimated 13 years by the previous manual method.

INNOVATION: 1896 Henry Ford experiments culminated in a self-propelled vehicle which he named the Ford Quadricycle. He test-drove it on June 4.

INNOVATION: 1900-1930 Greatest periods of productivity growth coincided with the electrification of factories eliminating much of the hardest labor and maximized profits in many industries.

INNOVATION: 1900-today Science-based Engineering increased energy efficiency and productivity by reducing friction and reducing steps & time needed to produce products. It also developed technology that decreased the loss of transmitted energy in wiring and switches including for voice and data transmission & maximized the reuse of heat as energy to drive production. Now majority of engineers work in Asia where most production is housed.

INNOVATION: 1900-1960 Electrical Generation in 1900 took 7 lbs coal/ kw hr. & by 1960 it took 0.9 lbs/ kw hr. = Highest productivity growth in early twentieth century as large high pressure boilers and efficient steam turbines replaced older-style steam engines. Steam power efficiency increased from 0.5% to 40% using today’s steam turbines to produce most conventional electricity.

INNOVATION: 1900 Modern manufacturing began when machines, aided by electric, hydraulic and pneumatic power, began to replace hand methods in industry. An early example is the Owens automatic glass bottle blowing machine, which reduced labor in making bottles by over 80%.

INNOVATION: 1900s-1970s Fax (short for facsimile) machines of various types had been in existence since the early 1900s but became widespread beginning in the mid-1970s.

INNOVATION: 1900-2000 Dematerialization is the reduction of use of materials in manufacturing, construction, packaging or other uses. In U.S. the quantity of raw materials per unit of output decreased approx 60% since 1900 & in Japan a 40% reduction in raw materials since 1973. Dematerialization is substitution of better materials & better engineering to reduce weight while maintaining function. Modern examples are plastic beverage containers replacing glass and paperboard, plastic shrink-wrap used in shipping and lightweight plastic packing materials. In US steel industry the peak steel consumption was in 1973, but per capita steel consumption grew globally in Asia.

INNOVATION: 1900s Rubber led to a new class of chemicals known as elastomers, some of which are used by themselves or in blends with rubber and other compounds for seals and gaskets, shock absorbing bumpers and a variety of other applications.

INNOVATION: 1905 First commercially successful glass bottle blowing machine were introduced. They were operated by a two-man crew working 12-hour shifts and could produce 17,280 bottles in 24 hours, compared to 2,880 bottles made a crew of six men and boys working in a shop for a day. The cost of making bottles by machine was 10 to 12 cents per gross compared to $1.80 per gross by the manual glassblowers and helpers.

INNOVATION: 1905 Best steam tractor was manufactured in California. 1917 Steam Tractor was designed by British for agricultural to compete directly with internal combustion-powered alternatives, but failed. Steam tractors were used but never became popular, and were phased out by 1920s.

INNOVATION: 1907-1950s Plastics were invented earlier but became more commercial in the 1950s and have were refined into the late 1980s – Inexpensive everyday items including packaging, containers, parts and household piping. This included in 1950 DuPont begin the manufacture of polyester and plastics for building materials and clothing grew.

INNOVATION: 1909 Hofmann invented methyl rubber & the first car tires were produced using this Synthetic rubber. It became important during the Second World War when supplies of natural rubber were cut off. 

INNOVATION: 1908-1927 Model T automobile built by the Ford Motor Company was conceived by Henry Ford as practical, affordable transportation for the common man and quickly became prized for its low-cost, durability, versatility, and ease of maintenance.

INNOVATION: 1912 first diesel ship, the MS Selandia, was launched.

INNOVATION: 1913 Henry Ford installed the first moving assembly line for the mass production of an entire automobile. His innovation reduced the time it took to build a car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes. Ford was a well-known application of conveyors along with various industrial trucks, overhead cranes, slides and whatever devices necessary to minimize labor in handling parts in various parts of the factory.

INNOVATION: 1917 Internal combustion mass-produced tractors by Fordson to replace horses and mules for pulling heavy farm equipment like reapers and combine harvesters.

INNOVATION: 1917 Conversion to powered material handling increased during WW 1 as shortages of unskilled labor developed and unskilled wages rose relative to skilled labor.

INNOVATION: 1920s Motorways for internal combustion powered vehicles completed the mechanization of overland transportation. Trucks appeared in 1920s to transport farm goods to market or to rail stations was greatly reduced. Motorized highway transport also helped reduced the need for big inventories as reliability and quick delivery became possible. This created high productivity growth in the 1930s.

INNOVATION: 1920s Mechanical stokers for feeding coal to locomotives and boilers were in use but in 1921 a completely mechanized and automated coal handling and stoking system was first used to feed pulverized coal to an electric utility boiler in 1921.

INNOVATION: 1920s Seismic exploration uses reflected sound waves to map subsurface geology to help locate potential oil reservoirs. This was a great improvement over previous methods, which involved mostly luck and good knowledge of geology, although luck continued to be important in several major discoveries. 1930s Rotary drilling was a faster and more efficient way of drilling oil and water wells. It became popular after being used for the initial discovery of the East Texas field.

INNOVATION: 1920s Telephone along with trucks and the new road networks allowed businesses to reduce inventory sharply. By 1929 31.9% of the Bell system was automatic using electro-mechanical switches controlled by vacuum tube devices, which consumed a large amount of electricity. Call volume eventually grew so fast that it was feared the telephone system would consume all electricity production, prompting Bell Labs to begin research on the transistor.

INNOVATION: 1927 The first Model T was produced in Detroit, Michigan and Henry Ford watched the 15 millionth Model T Ford roll off the assembly line at his factory in Highland Park, Michigan. It was named car of the century by critics. The Model T improved people’s lives by uniting families and improved social lives for couples.  Assembly line production allowed the price of the touring car version to be lowered from $850 in 1908 to less than $300 in 1925 and the Model T captured 40% of the car market in America.

INNOVATION: 1930s self-powered combines were developed to harvest bails of hay and wheat. This multiplied grain and related output/man-hour by 10+ Times (1945-1985) = Mechanized agriculture

INNOVATION: 1930s DIESEL replaces COAL: Steam locomotives used up to 20% of the U.S. coal production, but were replaced by diesel locomotives after World War II, saving a great deal of energy and reducing manpower for handling coal, boiler water and mechanical maintenance.

INNOVATION: 1930s Handling goods on pallets was a significant improvement over using hand trucks or carrying sacks or boxes by hand and greatly speeded up loading and unloading using forklift trucks and became widespread by the 1950s. Loading docks built to architectural standards allow trucks or rail cars to load and unload at the same elevation as the warehouse floor.

INNOVATION: 1930s Electric lights were far more efficient than oil or gas lighting and did not generate smoke, fumes nor as much heat and extended the work day, making factories & businesses more productive. Electric light greatly reduced fire hazards over oil and gas lighting. Fluorescent lamp, which became commercial in the late 1930s and was more efficient as are Diodes & LED’s used today which last longer.

INNOVATION: 1935-1955 Machining cutting speeds increased from 120–200 ft/min to 1000 ft/min due to harder cutting edges, causing machining costs to fall by 75%. One of the most important new hard materials for cutting is tungsten carbide.

INNOVATION: 1940s-1960s First digital computers were more productive than tabulating machines, but not by a great amount as early computers used thousands of vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) which used a lot of electricity and constantly needed replacing. By the 1950s the vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors which were much more reliable and used relatively little electricity. 1960s thousands of transistors and other electronic components could be manufactured on a silicon semiconductor wafer as integrated circuits, which are universally used in today’s computers. Computers initially read punch cards or read paper tapes for data and programming input and until 1980s many monthly utility bills were printed on a punched card that was returned with the customer’s payment.

INNOVATION: 1946 After WWII microwave transmission began being used for long distance telephony and transmitting television programming to local stations for rebroadcast. By late 1970s The diffusion of telephony to households was mature using fiber optic communications. Fiber optics greatly increased the transmission capacity of information over previous copper wires and further lowered the cost of long distance communication.

INNOVATION: 1950 33% of merchant shipping was diesel-powered. And today the most efficient prime mover is the two-stroke marine diesel engine developed in the 1920s. Today some can produce 100,000+ horsepower with a thermal efficiency of 50%.

INNOVATION: 1950-1980s Containerization bulk cargo for trains and ships reduced loading and unloading times from several days to one day or so and reduced strenuous and often dangerous work and minimized damages and theft. It removed erratic work and longshoreman idle time. It reduced the complexity of tracking, sorting and record keeping for bulk cargo. Old style ports with warehouses were congested and many lacked efficient transportation infrastructure, adding to costs and delays in port. Containers can be more efficiently filled than break bulk because containers can be stacked several high, doubling the freight capacity for a given size ship. Loading and unloading labor for containers is a fraction of break bulk and require less packaging. Containerization with small boxes was used in both world wars, particularly WW II, but became commercial in the late 1950s. Containerization left large numbers of warehouses at wharves in port cities vacant, freeing up land for other development.

INNOVATION: 1950s-1990s Specialist Engineers were educated in changing traditional work processes that were done after analyzing the work and making it more systematic to greatly increased the productivity of labor and capital. These specialists caused the changeover from the European system of craftsmanship, where a craftsman made a whole item, to the American system of manufacturing which used special purpose machines and machine tools that made parts with precision to be interchangeable with each person doing small tasks on the production line. The process took decades to perfect at great expense because interchangeable parts were more costly at first. Interchangeable parts were achieved by using fixtures to hold and precisely align parts being machined, jigs to guide the machine tools and gauges to measure critical dimensions of finished parts. Interchangeability was used for railroad track gauge standardization for all rail cars to allow for interconnection railroads. Today there are vast numbers of technical standards that must be met for interchangeability. Architectural standards cover numerous dimensions including stairs, doors, counter heights and other designs to make buildings safe, functional and in some cases allow a degree of interchangeability and usability.

INNOVATION: 1950s-1990s Specialist Engineers using the Scientific Method studied factory work processes to minimize the number of steps and time needed to do individual tasks, such as building a tire, bricklaying. These trained Industrial Engineers performing time and motion studies to determine the one best method of producing a product or task. This saved massive labor time and cost. Now most production other than military is done in Asia and other slave labor nations.

INNOVATION: 1950 to 2004 Wheat, corn & rice yields in developing countries showed a steep rise in crop yields by a factor of 4 to 5 times and 3 times for soybeans. High yields would not be possible without significant applications of fertilizer, particularly nitrogen fertilizer which was made affordable by the Haber-Bosch ammonia process. Nitrogen fertilizer short-term boosts crop production but soon burns out other key growing elements and can produce soil that can grow very little — becoming starved for NPK and zinc and leads to deficiencies in humans. The greatest period of agricultural productivity growth in the U.S. occurred from World War 2 until the 1970s. Much research is needed to cure depleted soils drained of their power to grow crops.

INNOVATION: 1950-Today Business administration, management practices, and accounting systems helped increase the size of businesses organized by departments and managed by professional managers as opposed to being run by sole proprietors or partners. Business administration as we know it was developed by railroads who had to keep up with trains, rail cars, equipment, personnel and freight over large territories. Modern business enterprise (MBE) is the organization and management of businesses, particularly large ones that employ professionals who use knowledge based techniques such areas as engineering, research and development, information technology, business administration, finance and accounting. MBE’s typically benefit from economies of scale. “Before railroad accounting we were moles burrowing in the dark.” — Andrew Carnegie

INNOVATION: 1950s Communications satellites came into use in the 1960s and today carry a variety of information including credit card transaction data, radio, television and telephone calls. The Global Positioning System (GPS) operates on signals from satellites. Internet communications depend on Satellites.

INNOVATION: 1950s-Today Robots are commonly used for hazardous jobs like paint spraying, and for repetitive jobs requiring high precision such as welding and the assembly and soldering of electronics like car radios. Industrial robots were used on a limited scale but began their rapid growth phase in the mid-1980s after the widespread availability of microprocessors used for their control. By 2000 there were over 700,000 robots worldwide. We are seeing Japanese robots capable of doing a variety of human functions and that will improve over time.

INNOVATION: 1959 Texaco’s Port Arthur refinery became the first chemical plant to use digital process control.

INNOVATION: 1960s or so Dry bulk materials handling systems used conveyors, stackers, and mobile equipment such as power shovels and loaders to handle high volumes of ores, coal, grains, sand, gravel, crushed stone, etc. Bulk materials handling systems are used at mines, for loading and unloading and for ships and factories to process bulk materials into finished goods, such as steel and paper mills.

INNOVATION: 1960 The First Airline Reservations System went online

INNOVATION: 1973 IBM introduced point of sale (POS) terminals in which electronic cash registers were networked to the store mainframe computer. 1980s brought in bar code readers for easier automated inventory management. Wal-Mart was an early adopter of POS and these devices reduced checkout time by 30%.

INNOVATION: 1980s Optical fiber began to replace copper wire in the telephone network and had very small diameter, allowing many to be bundled in a cable or conduit. Optical fiber is also an energy-efficient means of transmitting signals.

INNOVATION: 1990s Indoor storage was expanded to reduce losses of agricultural products from spoilage, insects and rats increasing profit & productivity. Hay stored outdoors often spoiled before indoor storage became common. Keeping livestock indoors in winter in barns reduced the amount of feed needed. Also, feeding chopped hay and ground grains, particularly corn (maize), was found to improve digestibility. The amount of feed required to produce a kg of live weight chicken fell from 5 in 1930 to 2 by the late 1990s and the time required fell from three months to six weeks.

INNOVATION: 1990s Data storage became better organized after the development of relational database software that allowed data to be stored in different tables such as products, parts, employees, customers, contractors, etc. These tables are related by common data fields called keys that relate customer to products to billing to where products are stored, etc. This makes it easy to find a passenger’s seat assignment by a variety of means such as ticket number or name.

INNOVATION: 1990s The Internet became interactive web pages allowing users to access various servers over Internet to engage in e-commerce such as online shopping, paying bills, trading stocks, managing bank accounts and renewing auto registrations. For many their entire lives now revolve around these diverse communications capabilities and business applications. Computers have greatly increased productivity. They have drastically reduced engineering time with over manual drafting using Computer Aided Design (CAD) to gain a 500% average increase in output. Software helps design electronic circuits, do stress analysis and simulate markets and economies. Of course, these productivity capabilities combined with future robotics mean far less need for manual and even analytic human labor but at the same time these capabilities empower humans to be more creative and useful to society and hopefully translate that into earning a living.

INNOVATION: 1990s Automated teller machines (ATM’s) became popular in recent decades and self checkout at retailers appeared in the 1990s.

INNOVATION FOR FRAUD: 2000s Goldman AUTOMATED FRONT RUNNING SYSTEM = Reads waiting orders & ROBS clients/traders a % of profits on every big trade! Goldman introduces AUTOMATED FRONT RUNNING SYSTEM that automatically cheats (ROBS) clients and traders out of a percentage of profits on virtually every significant trade on the market by reading orders in the Waiting Line and then Automatically manufacturing trades that robbed part of the profit of the trade. High Frequency Trading (HFT) rigging helps explain how Goldman Sachs earned at least $100 Million/Day on 116 out of 194 trading days through the end of September 2009. It’s like taking candy from a baby, when you can see the other players’ cards.

INNOVATION GONE WRONG: 2017 Today America produces nothing but military weapons and Scam Banking and murderous Big Pharma. America’s criminal British-Swiss Rothschilds Crime Syndicate run government has purposely ended America’s industrial power and shipped jobs to slave-labor nations. America’s high tech seems to have lost its creativity and simple offers refinements of old technologies and flounders in creating new technologies while Japan and China continue to innovate with robots and vehicles. Tesla is one bright spot, but more INNOVATIVE IDEAS are required to keep America going.

INNOVATION: 2017 TODAY Modern USA military systems rely on extensive use of small to state-of-art powerful computers.

INNOVATION: 2017-Future Computers did revolutionize manufacturing but automation, in the form of control systems, had already been in existence for decades. Computers did allow more sophisticated control, which led to improved product quality and process optimization.

INNOVATION: 2017-Future Today we see the Tesla Automobile and electric vehicles from other manufacturers and we have entire computers small enough to fit in a pocket. The power to make and edit our own movies and create our own websites to have fun or sell our services or products, which are often intellectual. Robots replace manual labor and free humanity for higher forms of human activities, many which we cannot even imagine today. What the future can bring is exciting if it used for INNOVATIONS that help humanity instead of spying and robbing humanity.


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